Friday, July 25, 2008

First Esopus War, from Early Sources

The first Esopus War from an internet site, called “The First Esopus War” with better documentation -

The First Esopus War
It is a peculiar feature of American history that many of the earlier settlements owe their establishment to the religious persecutions of the old country. Sometimes the Catholics drove the Protestants from their homes to find refuge in strange climes, as the French did the Huguenots at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; and again we behold a Protestant persecuting dissenters and Catholics alike, as the English did the Puritans of New England and the Romanists of Maryland. Another relic of old Europe, the outcome of the ancient feudal system, was the custom of granting large tracts to individuals called Patroons, thus establishing a system of tenantry, with the Lord of the Manor as the chief head. Both these causes, as we shall see, contributed to the settlement of Ulster county.
Holland at that time was denominated a "cage of unclean birds," because, it being a government founded on religious tolerance, all religions flocked there. Some English and French Walloons, who had found temporary refuge among the Hollanders, afterward emigrated to America, and settled at Rensselaerwyck. The management of the affairs of the Patroon of that section had been given to Brandt Van Schlectenhorst, "a person of stubborn and headstrong temper." This man was very earnest in defending what he considered the rights of his lord against the Governor of New Netherland and the West India Company. Stuyvesant claimed a jurisdiction about Fort Orange, and insisted that the Patroon was subordinate. Van Schlectenhorst denied both, and went so far as to dispute Stuyvesant's right to proclaim a fast in his jurisdiction. To insure allegiance, the Patroon pledged his tenants not to appeal from his courts to the Governor and Council; and finally, orders were issued for tenants to take the oath of allegiance to the Lord of the Manor. This bold proceeding Governor Stuyvesant was moved to call a crime. Some of the settlers sided with the Governor, and others with the doughty Van Schlectenhorst; the dispute at last ran so high that the two factions came to blows.
Among these tenants was one Thomas Chambers, an Englishman by birth, "tall, lean, with red hair, and a carpenter by trade." He was one of the Walloons that fled from his home to escape religious persecution, only to find himself involved in the troubles about the proprietary rights of the new country, a quarrel in which he had no interest; subject to the whim of his landlord or his commissary, treated as a slave, and victimized by covetous officers. He and his companions, therefore, cast about them for a new settlement, "where they could work or play, as seemed best to them." Chambers emigrated to the vicinity of Troy; but finding he was still on territory claimed by his old landlord, he removed to Esopus, having heard the land there was good, and that the savages had expressed a desire that the Christians would come among them. Tradition says they landed at the mouth of the Esopus Creek, and journeyed up until they reached the flats of Kingston. Here Chambers received a "free gift" of territory from the natives.
In 1655 a general war broke out between the Indian tribes on both sides of the Hudson, and the whites of Amsterdam and vicinity. When the news of this outbreak reached Esopus the inhabitants all fled, leaving their stock, dwellings and crops to the mercy of the savages. This action was the more necessary, as the few inhabitants were living scattered on their farms, without even a block-house for protection. During their absence their empty houses and unprotected grain was appropriated by the Indians. Albany records say the farmers returned to their homes as soon as peace was restored.
It had been the purpose of the Directors of the West India Company to construct a fort at Esopus, and orders had been issued to that effect. The orders were not obeyed, hence the unprotected state of the settlement. The savages had their wigwams all around the farms of the white people, and their maize-fields and bean-patches were near to each other. The hogs, cows and horses of the settlers roamed at will on the untilled flats, frequently destroying the crops of the Indian women. This made the Indians mad, and they complained of the depredations of the stock to the owners, but the animals still roamed.
Now and then a pig was found dead with an arrow or bullet in it. Now it was the Christian's turn to get mad. Still it might have been possible for the whites and Indians to have lived together in comparative amity, but for an additional source of trouble.

Jacob Jansen Stohl, an agent for the Governor at Esopus, wrote to Stuyvesant to the following purpose: "The people of Fort Orange (Albany) sell liquor to the Indians so that not only I, but all the people of the Great Esopus, daily see them drunk from which nothing good, but the ruin of the land, must be the consequence."
In these transactions the whites were sometimes more to blame than the savages, and yet they wrote in this wise: "Christ did not forsake us; He collected us in a fold. Let us therefore not forsake one another, but let us soften our mutual sufferings."
In a letter from Thomas Chambers to Governor Stuyvesant, dated May, 1658, we find additional evidence of the baneful effects of the strong drink sold to the savages. He writes in substance: "I saw that the savages had an anker (ten-gallon keg) of brandy lying under a tree. I tasted myself and found it was pure brandy. About dusk they fired at and killed Harmen Jacobsen, who was standing in a yacht in the river; and during the night they set fire to the house of Jacob Adrijansa, and the people were compelled to flee for their lives. Once before we were driven away and expelled from our property; as long as we are under the jurisdiction of the West India Company we ask your assistance, as Esopus could feed the whole of New Netherland. I have informed myself among the Indians who killed Harmen, and they have promised to deliver the savage in bonds. Please do not begin the war too suddenly, and not until we have constructed a stronghold for defense."

The following month Chambers again wrote:--"We have done our best to apprehend the murderer, but have been mockingly refused by the barbarians. In answer to our inquiry who sold them the brandy, the savages refer to no one in particular, but to many, now Peter, then Paul. It is evident that it is not for the sake of selling their stock of beavers alone that they keep near Fort Orange (Albany), where, as the make of the brandy keg proves, the coopers have hardly sufficient time to supply the demand by these people. The savages set fire to the cow-shed, the pig-sty, and then the dwelling-house of Jacob Adrijaensen, and not being satisfied, compelled us here to plow for them. Upon our refusal they take fire-brands and hold them under the roofs of our houses, to set fire to them. The common savages do not pay any attention to their chiefs, as the latter seem to have lost their authority. We are obliged to remain in our houses, as the savages would immediately attack us when we stir about, and set everything on fire; therefore we request your favor for a succor of forty or fifty men.
In response to the above letters, at a meeting at which were present Honorable Director-General Peter Stuyvesant and three councillors, the following action was taken: They took up and seriously considered the letters for Esopus. By the first they were informed that the savages had killed Harmen Jacobsen and set fire to two houses, and behaved and acted very seriously and wantonly; by the second the savages were continuing in their intolerable insolence and boldness, forcing the people there to plow for them, etc. It was there fore resolved that the Director-General should go there forthwith, and fifty or sixty soldiers as a body guard, to make arrangements. This Director-General was no less a personage than the Peter the Headstrong, of whom Washington Irving gives the following facetious description:

"Peter Stuyvesant was the last, and, like the renowned Wouter Van Twiller, the best of our ancient Dutch governors, Wouter having surpassed all who proceeded him, and Peter never having been equalled by any successor. He was of a sturdy, raw-boned make, with a pair of round shoulders that Hercules would have given his hide for, when he undertook to ease old Atlas of his load. He was, moreover, not only terrible for the force of his arm, but likewise of his voice, which sounded as if it came from a barrel; and he possessed an iron aspect that was enough of itself to make the very bowels of his adversaries quake with terror and dismay. All of this martial excellence of appearance was inexpressibly heightened by an accidental advantage, that of a wooden leg; of which he was so proud that he was often heard to declare he valued it more than all his other limbs put together. Like Achilles, he was somewhat subject to extempore bursts of passion, which were rather unpleasant to his favorites and attendants, whose perceptions he was wont to quicken, after the manner of his illustrious imitator, Peter the Great, by anointing their shoulders with his walking staff."

The following is embodied in the journal of Governor Stuyvesant's visit to Esopus:
"We left in the private yachts on the 28th day of May, arriving at the kill of the Esopus on the 29th. To avoid commotion among the savages, or causing them to flee at the sight of so many soldiers before they could be spoken with, I ordered the accompanying yachts, to follow separately at a distance, and not to anchor near me before nightfall, nor to show too many soldiers on deck at once. I sent a barge ashore opposite to two little houses of the savages, to invite two or three of the Indians aboard. The barge presently came back with two savages, and also Thomas Chambers and another man, who were induced to come down to look for help from the good south wind and expected relief. I persuaded the savages by a little present to go inland and induce the Indian sachems to meet me at the home of Jacob Jansen Stohl the following day, his being the last dwelling in contiguity, or the day after that, assuring them that no harm should come to them or theirs. They agreed to do it, and were put on shore after I had some further talk with the two Christians, Chambers and Van Der Sluys. The other yachts arriving during the evening passed by us who were aground close to the shore. I ordered the soldiers landed with the least possible noise, without beating the drum; which being done, they were to send for me and my people on my yacht. We marched the same evening to the 'bouwery' of Thomas Chambers, that being the nearest, for the night. On the morning of the 30th, that being Ascension Day, we marched to the house of Jacob Jansen Stohl, nearest to the habitations and plantations of the savages, where we had made the appointment to meet them, and where, on Sundays and at the usual feasts, the Scriptures were read.
"When the people had assembled in the afternoon I stated to them that I had come with sixty soldiers, asking of them their opinion of what it were best to do; that I did not think the present time was favorable to involve the whole country in a general war on account of the murder, the burning of two small houses and other complaints about threats of the Indians; that now in summer, with the prospect of a good harvest, it was not the proper time to make bad worse, least of all by giving room too hastily to a blind fear; that it was not in our power to protect them and the other outlying farmers as long as they lived separately from each other, and insisted upon it contrary to the order of the Company.
"They answered they should be ruined and indigent men if they were again obliged to leave their property, which result would follow if they could get no protection against the savages. I told them they could get no protection as long as they lived separately; that it was necessary that they should remove together at a suitable place, where I could and would assist them with a few soldiers until further arrangements were made; or they might retreat with their wives, children, cattle, and most easily removed property to the Manhattans, or Fort Orange for safety; but if they could make up their minds to neither, they must not future disturb us with complaints.
"Each was of opinion that it was dangerous to remain in their present condition; there was a good harvest in prospect, with which they hoped to sustain their families the coming winters; to abandon those fertile fields at this juncture would occasion great loss, and entail upon them and their families abject poverty. The necessity of a concentrated settlement was at length conceded, but it was thought impracticable to effect the removal of the houses and barns before harvest time, in addition to the labor of inclosing the place with palisades. They plead very earnestly that the soldiers might remain with them until after harvest; this I peremptorily refused, and insisted that they should make up their minds without delay. To encourage them I promised to remain with the soldiers until the place was enclosed with palisades, provided they went to work immediately, before taking up anything else. Another difficulty presented itself--each one thought his place the most conveniently located for the proposed enclosure. But on the last day of May the inhabitants brought answer that they had agreed unanimously to make a concentrated settlement, and each had acquiesced in the place selected, and in the final arrangements. The grounds were staked out that same afternoon.
"In response to my request of the Indian chiefs for a conference, twelve or fifteen savages made their appearance at the house of Jacob Jansen Stohl, but only two chiefs were among them. They explained that the other sachems would not come before the next day; that they were frightened at so many soldiers, and hardly dared to appear; also that they had been informed that more soldiers were to follow.
"After assurances on my part that no harm should befall them, they became more cheerful; and the same evening about fifty savages made their appearance at the house of Stohl. After they had all gathered under a tree outside of the enclosure, about a stone's throw from the hedge, I went to them, and so soon as we had sat down, they, as is their custom, began a long speech, telling how in Kieft's time our nation had killed so many of their people, which they had put away and forgotten.
"I answered that his all happened before my time, and did not concern me; that they and the other savages had drawn it all upon themselves by killing several Christians which I would not repeat, because when peace was made the matter had all been forgotten and put away among us [their customary expression on such occasions].
" I asked them if since peace was made any harm had been done to them or theirs; they kept a profound silence. I stated to them and upbraided them for the murders, injuries, and insults during my administrations, to discover the truth and authors of which I had come to Esopus at this time, yet with no desire to begin a general war, or punish any one innocent of it, if the murderer was surrendered and the damages for the burned houses paid. I added that they had invited us to settle on their lands in the Esopus, that we did not own the land, nor did we desire to until we had paid for it. I asked why they committed the murders, burned the houses, killed the hogs, and did other injuries.
"Finally one of the sachems stood up and said that the Dutch sold the 'boison' [brandy] to the savages, and were the cause of the Indians becoming 'cacheus' [crazy] mad or drunk, and that then they had committed the outrages; that at such times they, the chiefs, could not keep in bounds the young men who were then spoiling for a fight; that the murder had not been committed by any one of their tribe, but by a Neversink savage; that the Indian who had set fire to the houses had run away and would not be here. That they were not enemies; they did not desire or intend to fight, but had no control over the young men.
"I told them if the young men had a desire to fight to come forward now; I would match them, man for man, or twenty against thirty or even forty; that now was the proper time for it; that it was not well to plague, injure or threaten the farmers, or their women and children; that if they did not cease in future, we might try to recover damages. We could kill them, capture their wives and children, and destroy their corn and beans. I would not do it because I told them I would not harm them; but I hoped they would immediately indemnify the owner of the houses, and deliver up the murderer.
"To close the conference I stated my decision: that to prevent further harm being done to my people, or the selling of more brandy to the Indians, my people should all remove to one place and live close by each other; that they might better sell me the whole country of the Swannekers [Dutch] so that the hogs of the latter could not run into the corn-fields of the savages and be killed by them. The chiefs then asked through Stohl and Chambers that I would not begin a war with them on account of the late occurrence, as it had been done while they were drunk; they promised not to do so again.
"On Monday, June 3rd, the soldiers with all the inhabitants began work on the palisades. The spot marked out for a settlement has a circumference of about 210 rods, [a dutch rod is 12 feet] well adapted by nature for defensive purposes; and when necessity requires it can be surrounded by water on three of its sides. To carry on the work with greater speed and order I directed a party of soldiers and experienced wood-cutters to go into the woods and help load the palisades into wagons; the others I divided again into parties of twenty men each, to sharpen the palisades and put them up. The inhabitants who were able were set to digging the moat, who continued to do so as long as the wind and the rain permitted.
"Towards evening of the 4th of June a party of forty or fifty savages came to where we were at work, so that I ordered six men from each squad to look after their arms. After work had been stopped they asked to speak to me. They informed me they had concluded to give me the land I had asked to buy to 'grease my feet' as I had come so long a way to see them. They promised in future to do no harm to the Dutch, but would go hand in hand and arm in arm with them.
"Being in need of gunpowder, of which we had only what was in the 'bandoleers,' and lacking some plank for a guard-house, and some carpenters to aid our work, I concluded to go in the Company's yacht to Fort Orange for the same. I arrived back at Esopus on the afternoon of the 12th, and found everybody at work, and two sides of the palisades finished. About noon of the 20th the stockade was completed, it being necessary only to stop apertures where roots of trees had been in the ground: this was completed in good time the same day.
“Having accomplished the work so far I set out on my return, leaving 24 soldiers to assist in guarding the place. As they had themselves 30 fighting men, besides seven or eight carpenters, they were in my opinion capable of taking care of themselves.”

But the peace begun under such favorable auspices was of short duration, as we learn by a letter from Sergeant Lawrens, the officer in charge of the military at Esopus, to Governor Stuyvesant. He wrote
“Send me quickly orders. The Indians are becoming savage and insolent, and have killed a fine mare belonging to Jacob Jansen. They are angry that you challenged twenty of their men to fight. Those returned from the beaver-hunt say if they had been here they would have accepted the challenge. They talk about it every day; and to-day about five hundred savages are assembled, and their numbers constantly increasing. Provide us as quickly as possible with ammunition.” Ensign Direk Smith was dispatched to the relief of the garrison with twenty-five additional troops, making the fighting strength a total of fifty men, exclusive of the citizens.
Smith was directed to make secure the enclosed place, mount a sufficient guard, and not allow any savage to pass through except upon permission of Jacob Jansen Stohl or Thomas Chambers. They were not to act “hostilely” against the Indians, but to stand strictly on the defensive. The agricultural labors were to be kept up under a guard of from twenty to twenty-five men; the laborers themselves were directed to take their arms with them, “that in case of attack they may make a better stand against the savages;” and were also instructed to keep as close together as possible.

In October of 1658 the Esopus sachems made a conveyance of the land as they had promised. They said they hoped the soldiers would now lay down their arms, that the settlers need now fear nothing. They promised they would hunt many beavers and pass right by Fort Orange with their peltries; they liked to see the plows work, but no soldiers.” The following graphic account of a collision between the savages and the settlers we find in the records:
“To the Honorable, Wise and very Valiant, His Honor Director General Peter Stuyvesant at New Amsterdam:-----
“As on the 20th, at night between 10 and 11 o'clock, some savages raised a great noise and yelling under the fort, whereupon Dirck de Goyer and two others alarmed me on the guard, I commanded the sergeant to take nine or ten men, and directed him to go out by one of the gates and return by the other one, and not to molest anybody. The sergeant sent back word that a crowd of savages was there. Jacob Jansen Stohl came to the guard, saying `I will go, give me four or five men.' After they had returned I asked them who ordered them to fire, and they said the savages had shot first. Jacob Jansen Stohl replied violently that the dogs [Indians] had vexed us long enough; that they lie in the bushes all around; and that they have fired innumerable brand arrows into grain stacks and barns. They attempted to set fire to the barn of Hap, but the barn being covered with plank, the corn was saved; and they have killed several cattle belonging to us. One prisoner escaped from them; he gives the number of savages as four hundred. He thought the white prisoners in their hands were all alive, but badly off. He said further, if we had not some cannon here, not one of us, large or small, would have escaped.”

The records say when the Dutch came to the place they fired a volley among the Indians as they lay around a fire.
One savage was knocked in the head with an axe, and was left for dead, but he presently made off. Another, while lying on the ground stupidly drunk, was hewn on the head with a cutlass, which roused him so that he fled; after which the Dutch retreated to the fort with great speed.

We find the following version of the affair given by the Catskill Indians:--
Eight Esopus Indians broke off corn ears for Thomas Chambers. When they finished work the savages said, "Come give us brandy." Chambers replied, " When it is dark." When evening was come he gave a large bottle with brandy to the Indians. They retired to a place at no great distance from the fort and sat down to drink. The eight savages drank there until midnight; by that time they were drunk, and they began to yell. At length the brandy came to an end. One Indian said, "Buy more brandy; we still have wampum." The savage who was afterwards killed went to Chambers' house to get more brandy. Chambers said, " I have given you all I had." The savage then went to where the soldiers were, taking with him the bottle which he hid under his cloak. "Have you any brandy?" said the Indian. "Yes, I have brandy," answered a soldier. " Here is wampum, give me brandy for it." "What is wampum, and what can I do with it? where is your kettle?" said the soldier. "I have no kettle, but I have a bottle here under my cloak," replied the savage. The soldier filled the bottle, but would take nothing for the brandy.
The savage came to his comrades who were lying about and crying, and asked them, "Why do you cry? I have brought brandy!" Whereupon they changed their cry, and asked if he had given all the wampum. "No, a soldier gave it to me." They replied "that is very good," and began to drink lustily from the bottle, because they had no goblet or ladle. When the bottle was passed around the savages began to wrangle and fight. Two of them presently said to each other, "We have no cause to fight, let us go away;" so they went away, leaving six. After a little time one of the remaining savages said, "Come let us go away; I feel that we shall be killed." Said the other, "You are crazy; who should kill us? We would not kill the Dutch, and have nothing to fear from them or the other Indians." "Yes," replied he, "but I nevertheless am so heavy-hearted."
The bottle was passed twice, and the savage said again, "Come, let us go; my heart is full of fears." He went off and hid his goods in the bushes at a little distance. Coming back once more they heard the bushes crackle as the Dutch came there, without knowing who it was. Then this savage went away, saying "Come, let us go, for we all shall be killed;" and the rest laid down together, whereupon the Dutch came and all of them fired into the Indians, shooting one in the head and capturing another. One drunken savage was continually moving about, whereupon the Dutch fired upon him repeatedly, nearly taking his dress from his body.

Ensign Smith knew what the consequences of this outbreak would be, and he sought to ascertain who ordered the firing contrary to his express instructions. The Dutch cast all the blame on the Indians, saying that the latter fired first. The affairs of the colony being in such an unsatisfactory state, and finding the people would not respect his authority, Smith announced his intention of leaving for New Amsterdam next day. Great excitement was manifested when this became known. The people tried to dissuade him from his purpose by representing their exposed condition, and making assurances of future obedience on their part. Smith was intractable, and continued making preparations for his departure; but by an adroit measure of Stohl and Chambers, who hired all the boats in the neighborhood, he found himself unable to carry out his resolution. It was deemed expedient, however, to acquaint the Governor of the state of affairs, and accordingly Christopher Davis was dispatched down the river in a canoe for that purpose.
Davis was escorted to the river by a company of eight soldiers and ten citizens, under Sergeant Lawrentsen, Sept. 21st, 1659. On the return of the escort to the village they fell into an ambuscade near where now stands the City Hall; the Sergeant and thirteen men surrendered without firing a shot, the rest making their escape. War now began in earnest. More than five hundred savages were in the vicinity of the fort, who kept up a constant skirmish with settlers. By means of firebrands they set fire to the House of Jacob Gebers; numbers of barracks, stacks and barns were in like manner destroyed. One day they made a desperate assault on the palisades which came near being successful. Failing in this, the savages slaughtered all the horses, cattle and hogs they could find outside the defenses. Three weeks was a constant siege kept up so that "none dare go abroad." Unable to take the town they vented their fury on the unfortunate prisoners.
Jacob Jansen Van Stoutenburgh, Abram Vosburg, a son of Cornelius B. Sleight, and five or six other were compelled to run the gauntlet; they were next tied to stakes, and, after being beaten and cut in the most cruel manner, were burned alive. Thomas Clapboard [Chambers], William the carpenter, Peter Hillebrants and Evert Pel's son were among the captives.
These are the only names mentioned in the early records. Clapboard was taken by six warriors down the Esopus kill. At night he removed the cords by which he was bound, and successively knocked five of his captors in the head while they were asleep, killing the sixth before he could fly, and making good his escape. Another prisoner, a soldier, got home safely after a somewhat rough experience. Peter Laurentsen and Peter Hillebrants were ransomed; Pel`s son, then a mere youth, was adopted into the tribe and married among them. Overtures were afterwards made to the Indians by the friends of the lad for his return; but the savages answered that he “wished to stay with his squaw and pappoose, and he ought to.”
News of these events filled the whole colony with fear and forebodings. Stuyvesant had only six or seven soldiers in garrison at Amsterdam, and they were sick and unqualified for duty. He then sent to Fort Orange and Rensselaerwyck for reinforcements; but the inhabitants of Fort Orange could not succor without leaving their own homes defenseless. The Governor asked for volunteers, offering Indians as prizes; only six or seven responded, lie then conscripted all the garrison at Amsterdam, the Company's servants, the hands in his brewery and the clerks. The people made great opposition to this, averring that “they were not liable to go abroad and fight savages.”

Notwithstanding these hindrances Governor Stuyvesant set sail October 9th with about 160 men, and reached Esopus next day. Here he found the siege had been raised thirty-six hours before, and that the savages had retreated to their homes whither the Governor's troops could not follow them, for the country was then innundated with nearly a foot of water from the frequent rains.

In the spring of 1660, there was a renewal of hostilities; an Indian castle having been plundered, and several savages taken captive, the Indians sued for peace and proposed an exchange of prisoners. Stuyvesant declined their overtures, and prosecuted the war with vigor, sending some of the captive chiefs, then in his hands, to Curagoa, as slaves to the Dutch.

The clans now held a council. Said Sewackenamo, the Esopus chief, “What will you do?” “We will fight no more,” said the warriors. “We wish to plant in peace,” replied the squaws. “We will kill no more hogs,” answered the young men.

Stuyvesant met their propositions with an extravagant demand for land. The fertile corn-planting grounds of the Walkill and Rondout valleys had excited the cupidity of the colonists. The savages were loath to give up so much of their territory, but they finally acceded to the Governor's demand. During the negotiations the Indians plead for the restoration of their enslaved chiefs. But in pursuance of Stuyvesant's policy, those ancient sachems had become the chattels of Dutchmen, and were toiling, under the lash, in the maize and bean-fields among the islands of the far-off Caribbean Sea; so the Governor replied that they must be considered dead. Although deeply grieved at this, the chiefs agreed to the treaty, and departed.

Thursday, July 24, 2008

The First Esopus War; 1659—July 1660

The First Esopus War,
Excerpts from the HISTORY OF KINGSTON. By Marius Schoonmaker, published 1888

The Beginnings of the Colony of the New Netherlands
In the year 1609 Hendrick Hudson, in a ship called the Half-moon, furnished him by the Dutch East India Company, departed from Holland in search of a passage to the East Indies. . On the 12th of September, 1609, he entered a narrow strait, which led him to the Hudson river which has since immortalized his name. He anchored his ship and for several days in the bay by Manhattan Island., Hudson then proceeded up the river, which some of the Indian tribes called "Cahohatatia," which translated means “river of the mountains”, and explored it a short distance beyond the present site of Albany, stopping at several places on the route, . On his return to Europe, although detained by the British and prevented from returning to Holland, he transmitted to his Amsterdam patrons a description of his discoveries
The next year the East India Company of Holland sent a ship to trade with the natives. Finding their first venture profitable, they soon established trading posts at Manhattan, Fort Orange, now Albany, and at some intermediate points along the river, including the mouth of the creek at Atkarkarton, afterward Esopus, now Kingston. At this last-mentioned place the valley of the several large streams (the Rondout, the Wallkill, and the Esopus), all concentrating at that point and extending far into the interior, furnished facilities for a trading post. . The mountains and [p3] forests through which these valleys extended abounded with game and animals valuable for their furs.
On the 11th day of October, 1614, the States-General of Holland granted to "the United New Netherland Company the exclusive right to visit and navigate all the lands situate in America between New France and Virginia, , and which are named the New Netherlands ; and to navigate or cause to be navigated the same for four voyages within the period of three years, to commence from the first day of January, 1615, or sooner."
Under the authority thus granted the company took possession of the Hudson River, and built three forts or redoubts—one on Castle Island just below Albany, one on the Battery at New York, and one at the mouth of the Rondout Creek.
After the expiration of this patent, and on the 3d of June, 1620, the States-General incorporated the West India Company with enormous and almost unlimited powers. In the name of the States- General it could make contracts and alliances with princes and nations, build forts, administer justice, appoint and discharge governors, soldiers, and public officers, and promote trade.
The government of the company was vested in five separate chambers of managers: one at Amsterdam, managing four ninths; one in Zeeland, two ninths; one at Dordrecht, one ninth; one in North Holland, one ninth, and one in Friesland'and Groningen, one ninth.
General executive powder, for all purposes except war, was entrusted to a board of nineteen delegates, called the " College of the XIX."
The time of the patent was for twenty -four years, and the New Netherlands was included within their grant. At this time, when the Dutch sought to acquire possession of the Hudson River and adjoining territory, that on the west of the Hudson below Albany was occupied by the Indians known as the Algonquins, who were divided into numerous bands under local names. The band or tribe at Kingston and its immediate vicinity are generally known and designated as the Esopus Indians, sometimes named the Warynawancks.
The West India Company was specially organized for commercial and trading purposes [For Profit], and therefore its principal object was the control and possession of the New Netherlands, for the purpose of conducting and monopolizing the rich and very profitable fur trade with the Indians. As a necessary consequence, the earliest immigrants were merely a company of traders.
The Dutch West India Company purchased the island of Manhattan from the Indians for a sum equivalent to about twenty-four dollars of our money. Peter Minuit, the first agent of the company, under the title of governor, built a house upon the island and resided there. The lower end of the island was then occupied by a fort and a few cottages, and was called New Amsterdam.
Governor Minuit continued his agency for several years, apparently cultivating the friendship of the savages and the interest of his employers. Upon his resignation he was succeeded by Wouter Van Twiller, who , had the wisdom to pursue a peaceful and conciliatory policy with the savages.

Indian Troubles in the Colony
About 1638 Governor Van Twiller was succeeded in his agency by Willem Kieft. He was said to be arbitrary and kept the colony in a continual turmoil. ;He drove the Indians to desperation and madness, aroused Indian wars and massacres, and soon had scarcely a friend in the colony.
One of his first steps against the Indians was, in 1638, to attempt the levy of a tribute upon the river Indians. They rebelled against its enforcement. About 1640 the Raritans, a tribe living along the river of that name, were accused of stealing some hogs. Governor Kieft at once, without making any inquiry into the justice or falsity of the charge, sent a band of soldiers to punish them, who fell upon them unawares, killed a number, and destroyed their corn. Another instance is related by a chronicler of the times :
“A Dutchman sold to a young Indian, a son of a chief, brandy; and, when he was intoxicated, cheated and drove him away. The Indian, raging with drink and maddened by the treatment he had received, went to his home, procured his bow and arrows, returned and shot the Dutchman dead. The chiefs of the murderer's tribe hastened to the governor to explain the matter, and to pay the price of blood ; they wished for peace, but the governor was inexorable. He demanded the murderer, but he had fled to a neighboring tribe. ' It is your own fault,' exclaimed the indignant chief ; ' why do you sell brandy to our young men ? it makes them crazy.' Just at this time came a company of Mohawks, all armed [p5] with muskets, to demand tribute of the enfeebled river tribes. The latter fled to the Dutch for protection. ' Now is the time,' urged the people, ' to obtain forever the friendship of the Indians living around us by their protection.' But Kieft,, deemed it the proper time for their extermination. "
"The unsuspecting victims of this scheme of treachery and cruelty were with the tribe of Hackensacks, just beyond Hoboken. About the hour of midnight some soldiers from the fort and freebooters from the ships in the harbor passed over the river, and soon thereafter were heard the shrieks of the dying Indians. The carnage continued ; the poor victims ran to the river to pass over to their supposed friends at New Amsterdam. But they were driven into the water. The mother who rushed to save her drowning child was pushed in, that both might perish in the freezing flood ; and another company of Indians, trusting to the Dutch for protection, who were encamped on the island a short distance from the fort, were murdered in the same manner. In the morning the returning soldiers received the congratulations of Kieft."
The settlers, when they became aware of the facts, were indignant and horror-stricken, and condemned the atrocity in no measured terms. As might have been anticipated, the anger and indignation of the savages were aroused to the highest pitch of fury, and war was inaugurated which knew no mercy. Wherever a white man's hut was situated, there was sure to ascend the smoke of conflagration. All the settlers who could escape the fury of the savages rushed to the fort for protection, and all outside settlements were deserted. Some in their terror returned to Holland. If at any time before that there had been any settlers in Esopus, as some allege, their homes were then deserted and abandoned. The war was thus started in the winter of 1643, and waged with slight interruption, and with more or less brutality, for two years, before peace was concluded. Kieft, whose conduct was censured by his superiors, was soon after recalled, and set sail for England, which country he never reached, being shipwrecked and drowned on the passage.
In 1646 Petrus Stuyvesant was appointed to succeed Kieft as governor. He was honest and trustworthy, but had a most difficult task before him to overcome the effects of Kieft's misgovernment and treachery.

The settlement of the Esopus [Kingston]
In 1652 considerable difficulty arose at Rensselaerwyck in regard to title and occunpancy of land, caused by the patent of the patron Van Rensselaer overlapping the occupancy of some settlers. Parties were violent in their quarrels, which, in a number of cases, led to personal conflicts. Thomas Chambers, an Englishman, Mattys Hendrix, Christopher Davis, and Johan De Hulter, who had [p6] settled on the disputed territory, and several of their neighbors, desiring peace and comfort, left for Atkarkarton (Esopus), [now Kingston]
and formed a settlement there; this immigration of Chambers and his neighbors was the first approach to a permanent settlement.
Here Chambers, in 1653, received a gift from the natives of about seventy-six acres of land, described as bounded “Easterly and Westerly by the woods, and running Northerly and Southerly by the Kill [creek].“ This grant, therefore, must have been of the lowland along the creek, as that was prairie land. . Some of his associates also purchased land from the Indians about the same time, and afterward received confirmatory grants thereof.
Settlers now began to come in rapidly, and soon there was quite a colony gathered together. As early as 1655 the wife of Cornells Barentse Slecht was licensed " as a midwife for Esopus." Each of the settlers at that time had his territory allotted to him and settled thereon, so that they were scattered and unprotected from the savages.
It appears that Johan De Hulter, in 1654, purchased a tract of one thousand acres from the Indians, bounded on the north by the lands of Thomas Chambers, and was patented by his widow in March, 1657. This grant, it was claimed by some, covered the site of the old village of Kingston, but was denied by Governor Stuyvesant. This settlement remained in peace for only a short time, for in 1655 the Indians, on both sides of the river, made war upon the Dutch at New Amsterdam and its vicinity, and the settlers at Esopus, fearing an attack and being without any means of defense, left their homes and went to more secure areas. As soon as peace was concluded, the following fall, they returned to their homes to find that much had been appropriated and destroyed by the Indians.

Indian Troubles in the Esopus
With residences thus scattered, the natives were living around and among them, th;is resulted in frequent depredations the one upon the other; and the settlers were not careful to keep the " fire-water" from the Indians' lips. That in one instance resulted in a drunken spree near Ponckhockie, in which the Indians in their craziness killed one man, a skipper named Harmon Jacobs, while standing on board his vessel ; and the dwellings of Jacob Adriance and Andries Van der Huys, located at Ponckhockie, were set fire to and burned to the ground.
This situation led some of the settlers to call upon Stuyvesant, the governor, for assistance. In it they say : " The savages compel the whites to plough their maize land, and when they hesitate threaten, with firebrands in their hands, to burn their houses. ,,, That the chiefs have no control of their men. We are locked up in our houses and dare not move a limb."
The extent of their settlement at that time, May, 1658, may be judged by the fact that in such application to the governor they state that " they had 990 schepels of grain in the ground, and had 60 or 70 people, who support a reader at their own expense. "
Immediately on receipt of the news, May 28th, the council directed the governor to proceed with sixty or seventy men to the relief of the inhabitants.
He arrived there on Wednesday ; the next day being Ascension Day, he notified the people to meet him after service in the afternoon. He told them the killing of one man and the burning of two buildings was not enough to make war. They must concentrate and form a village with a stockade, so as to be able to protect themselves. They objected on account of their poverty and their inability to house their crops so near harvest, and they wished the troops to remain and to have the village built after harvest. He finally told them that there was no security as they then lived ; they must concentrate then or remove to Fort Orange or Manhattan ; or if they remained as they were, they must give him no more trouble. If they agreed to concentrate, he would remain until the work was complete.
The next day, the 30th of May, he had a conference with about fifty warriors, who met him under a tree. Stuyvesant then recounted to them their insolence to the whites, their murders, and their burning of dwellings ; still he did not come to make war, but to punish the guilty ; and asked them why they acted thus, and were constantly threatening the inhabitants. After a pause one of the chiefs arose and said : " The Shawanakins sold our children drink, and they were thus the cause of the Indians being made crazy, which was the cause of all the mischief. The sachems could not always control the young men, who would often fight and wound. The murder was committed not by one of our tribe, but by a Minnisink, who had skulked away among the Haverstraws. The one who fired the two small dwelling-houses had run away, and dared not cultivate his. own soil. We are innocent, not actuated by malice, do not want to fight, but cannot control the young men."
Stuyvesant replied that if any of their men wanted to fight, let them step forth. He would place man against man ; yes, twenty against thirty or forty of the hotheads. But that it is unmanly to threaten farmers, and women and children, who are not warriors. [p 8] If it was not stopped he would be compelled to retaliate on old and young, on women and children. "You must repair all damages, seize the murderer if he comes among you, and do no further mischief. The Dutch are now going to live together in one spot. It is desirable that you should sell us the whole of the Esopus land and remove farther into the interior ; for it is not good for you to reside so near the Shawanakins, whose cattle might eat your maize, and thus cause frequent disturbances." The matter was settled upon the terms thus dictated by Stuyvesant, and the savages departed after exchanging some small presents.
The citizens finally came to terms with Stuyvesant, and entered into a written agreement, which translated is as follows: " We, the subscribers, assembled inhabitants of the Esopus, having found from time to time, through a very sorrowful experience, and to the damage of us all, the faithless and unbearable boldness of the Indians' barbarous nature—how uncertain it is to depend on their words — how careless and perilous it is to live so separate and wide apart among such a faithless and insolent nation, have (on the proposition and promise of the Director-General, the lord Petrus Stuyvesant, to furnish us with a night-guard, and in case of necessity with further help) resolved among one another, that in order to better protect ourselves, our wives and children, it is necessary to leave our separate dwellings immediately after the signing of this, in the most speedy manner possible, and to concentrate in such place as the Lord Director shall choose, and surround it with palisades of proper length ; and in order that through these means, if it please the all-good God to lend his blessing, we may be better prepared to preserve ourselves and ours from a sudden onslaught of the Indians, we bind ourselves one to another, after prayer to the Lord, to take the means named in hand without any objection, and to complete them as speedily as possible, under a fine of one thousand guilders, to be paid for the benefit of the place, by any one who may oppose the same by words or deeds. In further witness whereof we have hereto set our own hands, in presence of the Lord Director-General and Govert Loockermans, old Schepens of the City of Amsterdam in New Netherland. Done the last of May, 1658. "
Signed : Jacob Janseri Stol, Thomas Chambers, Cornelis Barentse Slecht, mark of Willem Jansen, Peter Dercksen, Jan Jansen, Jan Broersen, Dirck Hendricksen Graef, Jan Loornan."
After this agreement was signed, the priority was the selection of the site for the village. Stuyvesant wisely selected the site of what subsequently became the thickly settled part of the old village of Kingston, being protected by very steep banks on three sides, and exposed on a level only at the south.

Building and living in a Stockade
The location appears to have been satisfactory to all, as the inhabitants proceeded at once to remove their dwellings and build the stockade. The selection was made on the 31st day of May, and in three weeks' time the palisade was substantially completed, the buildings removed, a bridge thrown over the brook beyond the gate near the northwest corner of the stockade, and a guard-house and temporary barracks built.
The location of the stockade was such that on the north, east, and west sides it ran along the brow of a steep declivity, with small steams of water, through wet marshy ground at the foot, and an extensive prairie flat beyond on the north and east sides; and on the west was a valley, with a brook running through the centre, bordered by considerable marshy ground. The last-named brook was very soon utilized for milling purposes; on the south there was a very extended sandy flat terminating in the narrow neck encompassed by the stockade.[p10]
Shortly after the Dutch had begun their stockade they saw a band of Indians approaching and at first apprehended trouble, but soon found that the mission was friendly. They had come to give the land on which the village was commenced as a present to "the grand sachem" of the Hollanders, "to grease his feet, as he had taken so long and painful a journey to visit them."
Stuyvesant then, after the completion of the work, and leaving a detail of twenty-four soldiers as a guard, left on the 24th of June for his headquarters at New Amsterdam.
Peace with the Indians promised to be of very short continuance. Distrust seemed to exist on both sides. On the 15th of October, 1658, Director Stuyvesant had a conference with several sachems or chiefs of the savages. After the sachem had affirmed their authority to enter into a binding agreement, the affronts and injuries which they had done to the Esopus Christians were rehearsed to them as follows : "
They or their tribe had killed two horses of the Widow Hulter."
“That about a year or eighteen months ago they had wounded with a hatchet one Jacob Adriaensen on the head, while in his own house, in consequence of which he is still blind of one eye, and they had also mortally wounded his little child."
“That since the Spring they had burned his house and plundered his goods, also killed a dutchman on one of the Sloops."
“That they had stolen and taken with them from the aforesaid burned house some duffels and shirts of Adriaen Van der Sluys."
“That they had compelled the farmers to plough their land for corn and had threatened Cornells Barentsen Slecht to burn his house, in case he should refuse, taking a firebrand for that purpose and running up under the roof to fire the barn. "
“That they had extorted at different times new payments from the Dutch, who had bought land from them and paid for it according to the bill of sale, and had inflicted many more threats, affronts and damages upon our nation, which have been the cause that the People have been obliged to pull down their houses and move close together, and that the Director General has been forced to close this place by palisades, with great labor and expenses and to send here and keep so many soldiers.
"That they have killed again, contrary to the promise, a [p 11] horse and several hogs belonging to Jacob Jansen Stoll for all which losses caused by them proper satisfaction is demanded."
The Indians made professions of friendship and a desire to make satisfaction. But the director-general, after waiting until the 18th, the Indians not returning on that day, as promised, became satisfied that they had no intention of giving satisfaction. He therefore returned to New Amsterdam on the 19th of October, 1658, leaving instructions with Ensign Dirck Smit that he should join to the old garrison twentyfive men from the military brought up, so that they should number fifty men, and he to have the supreme command. With the assistance of the inhabitants he was immediately to make the enclosed place secure, and mount a proper guard at the two gates and the guard-house, in daytime as well as at night, and not allow any savage to pass through except upon permission of Jacob Jansen Stoll and Thomas Chambers. Until further order he was not to act hostilely against the savages unless they began first and harmed the Christians. Then, with the advice of said Stoll and Chambers, and assistance of the inhabitants, he was to act defensively, and apprehend, resist, and pursue the savages as occasion might require.
On the 29th of October, 1658, Messrs. Stoll, Chambers, and Smit reported to the director-general, by letter, that the savages on the previous day had released the large tract of land as demanded, and expected some presents in return.
Mutual distrust continued to exist between the whites and the Indians. The Dutch suspected that the savages intended to attack and slaughter them when opportunity offered, while the savages had no confidence in the sincerity of the director-general, he having avoided or neglected to send them the promised presents as a guarantee of peace. With the savage, the withholding of the presents was an evidence of want of sincerity. For that reason they apprehended that it was his intention to surprise and destroy them. In this critical condition, ready to blaze at the touch of the slightest spark, they lingered along through the winter and summer of 1659 and until the fall, when an outrage on the part of the whites rekindled the anger of the Indians

The incident that brought fullscale War
A few Indians—some eight in number—were employed by Thomas Chambers, who lived on his farm and had not removed into the village, to husk his corn, at which they were engaged until late in the evening.
During the evening they asked for brandy. When they had finished their work he gave them a large jug of it. They went to a brook near by and had their party. As the liquor operated the [p12] noise and yelling and drunken actions increased. It became so great that the commandant of the guard ordered a squad of his men to march out of one of the gates and return by the other, so as to see what the turmoil was, but not to commit any violence. He did so, and reported that it was a few Indians on a drunken spree.
That was enough to prompt some concerned settlers to action. Jacob Jansen Stoll called on several people to follow him and attack the Indians. Accordingly, against the orders of Ensign Smit, he left with Jacob Jansen Van Stoutenbergh, Gysbert Phillipse Van Velthuysen, Thomas Higgins, Evert Pels, Jan Arentsen, Barent Harmensen, Martin Hoffman, and Abel Derckson, and attacked the savages firing a volley of musketry among them, killing some and wounding others. It is said the indians immediately jumped up : one was knocked on the head with an axe ; a second was taken prisoner ; a third fled ; a fourth, while lying intoxicated, was cut on the head with a cutlass, which aroused him from his stupor, and he made off. The Dutch thereupon returned to the fort …
Ensign Smit, perceiving that he could not control the action of the settlers, determined at once to return with his command to New Amsterdam, and leave the settlers to the consequences of their acts. He therefore announced his intention to leave the next day, and made preparations accordingly.
The people made earnest opposition. They did not know what to do in the predicament in which they were placed. Smit would not yield, and insisted upon going. Finding they could do nothing by persuasion, Stoll and Chambers quietly got possession of all the boats in the neighborhood, so that Smit was thus deprived of the only means he had of transportation. In this emergency, securing one canoe, he sent Christopher Davis to the governor with information of the situation . . He was escorted to the river by eight soldiers and about a dozen citizens, under the command of Sergeant Laurentson. This was on the 25th of September, 1659, about four days after the incident. When this party was returning from the river, it fell into an ambuscade near where the City Hall is now situated. The sergeant and thirteen men at once surrendered, seeing, with the opposing numbers, the folly of resistance. The others fled, and reached the gate in safety.
War was now fully inaugurated. The Indians, to the number of five hundred and upward, surrounded the place, and kept up a constant skirmish. Throwing firebrands, they set fire to the house of Jacob Sebers, which, with many barns, stacks, and barracks were burned. They attempted to take the place by storm, and for that purpose made a most desperate assault, but without success. The stockade formed such an effective protection that only one man inside of the enclosure was killed. Not succeeding in capturing the place, they then proceeded to kill all the domestic animals they could find. The siege was thus kept up uninterruptedly for three weeks. Failing in their main object, they then proceeded to wreak their vengeance upon the prisoners.
Jacob Jansen Van Stoutenbergh. Abraham Vosburgh, a son of Comelis B. Slecht, and several others were forced to run the gauntlet, after which they were tied to stakes ; then cut and beaten in the most cruel manner ; and such as survived the torture were burned alive. There were others of the prisoners who suffered torture and death, but their names are unknown.
Thomas Chambers was exchanged for an Indian captive. One soldier made his escape. Sergeant Laurentson and Peter Hillebrants were ransomed. Evert Pels' son, who was a youth, was adopted into an Indian family. He remained with the tribe, took a wife from among them, had children, and refused to leave his wife. Whether he afterward returned to civilization or not tradition does not inform us.
At this time there was a great deal of sickness prevailing at New Amsterdam and throughout the colonial possessions, which, added to the fear of the inhabitants, it was impossible for Stuyvesant to procure any volunteers for aid to Esopus. Anticipating that the massacre and war would extend throughout the whole colony, the farmers fled in every direction, abandoning houses, grain, cattle, and, indeed, the nearest inhabited villages on Long Island, seeking shelter where they thought there might be safety.
There were only about half a dozen soldiers all told in Fort Amsterdam, and all sick. Stuyvesant himself was sick. In this plight he used every effort imaginable to procure volunteers ; every effort to that end was a failure. After repeated appeals only from twenty-five to thirty volunteers could be procured. Finally he required the able-bodied men to cast lots, and that those upon whom the lots fell would be required to go, under penalty of forfeiture of fifty guilders.
On the 9th of October, 1659, on Sunday, after the second service, Stuyvesant was able to set off with about one hundred and sixty men and as many Indians from Long Island. He reached Esopus the next day. On arriving there he learned that the Indians, not having been able to carry the works by assault or by any other way, had, about three weeks previous, abandoned the siege and gone to their homes. Stuyvesant was unable to pursue them on account of the country being so inundated, and the streams swelled by the heavy rains. He then at once returned to Manhattan.
Before leaving he strengthened the garrison, leaving Smit still in command. It appears, however, that the savages only made their appearance occasionally, to make threats and keep the people watchful. In the mean time, the authorities at Fort Orange had sent two Maquas chiefs, with Misameret, a Mohican sachem, to conclude an armistice. In this, after a few days' stay, they were successful, and at the same time they ransomed two men. The armistice was to continue as long as the director should elect.
On the 28th of November, 1659, Stuyvesant again visited the place, hoping to conclude a permanent peace, but the savages were afraid of him and did not meet him . About the middle of the following month they brought in some turkeys and deer, " to see if we were sincere." Some powder was given in exchange, which had a happy effect. But no confidence was placed in them. It was believed that winter and a scarcity of corn alone retarded hostilities. Tradition and old documents have left but little information how the settlers passed the winter. There is no doubt that they had a very watchful, anxious, and busy time.
Late in the winter or early in the spring of 1660 Director Stuyvesant had a consultation with his council in regard to the affairs of Esopus and their troubles with the Indians, and proposed to make a formal declaration of war. He thought it too humiliating to bear what had passed in Esopus, and he proposed to fight. He said the people of Esopus could produce more grain than all the other settlements. There was, therefore, the greater need for their protection. He did not purpose to declare war immediately, but at once began preparations therefor, and increased the military strength of the colony. And until prepared to strike a decisive blow, he purposed "ruse for ruse, and to lead them away by chicanery."
Van Ruyven, the secretary of the colony, opposed this plan if it could be avoided, reminding them that the whites were aggressors, not the Indians, and urging that another effort be made for peace; and if war must be made, it should be deferred until fall, when they could destroy the maize , which was always planted the some remote, secret place, to provide Indians with food for the winter. The council, however, agreed to declare war, but advised it be deferred until fall.
After the above determination had been reached, and on the 15th of March, Goetchels, chief of the Wappingers, appeared before the council at Manhattan, and asked for peace in the name of Pegh-Pegh-quanock, Pemmyrameck, Prenwamack, and Seewechammee, sachems of the Esopus Indians. "They were very fearful all winter the Dutch would make war. They had the wampum and beaver all ready to make peace. They did not come themselves, because they were full of fear." Governor Stuyvesant answered, they only wanted an "empty peace"
The chief answered it was only the empty heads (Kaele backers) who wanted war ; that all the principal men, especially Kaelkop and Pemmyrameck, begged for peace and wanted to meet at Esopus. In the mean time, Smit was pursuing the Indians and harassing them wherever they could be found. On the 15th of March he marched into the interior about eight or ten miles, where he discovered sixty savages, who fled without offering any resistance. But the Dutch soldiers fired on them, killed three or four, and took twelve prisoners. Returning they destroyed an Indian fort called Wiltmeet, supposed to have been located in Marbletown, and captured considerable maize, beans, and peas, and a number of peltries.
This again struck terror into the savages, and they were afraid to go and meet Stuyvesant, who arrived at Esopus on the 18th to meet them. Stuyvesant, irritated by their failure to meet him, at once determined to declare war. He then sent the plunder and prisoners to Manhattan, ordered the remnants of the tribes to be driven across the Catskill Mountains, and then sailed to Fort Orange. On the 25th of March, 1660, he issued a formal declaration of war against them and their adherents.
By treaties entered into with river tribes south of Esopus, including the Wappingers, he bound them to remain neutral ; thus entirely cutting off the Esopus Indians from any allies or assistance in that quarter.
On the 3d of April two parties of savages appeared on the opposite side of the Esopus Creek and made derisive gestures. The next day they came again and promised to come on the morrow. Smit, early the next morning, placed forty-three men in ambush about three gun shots from the stockade. Soon about one hundred Indians appeared, but their scouts discovered the snare. The Dutch now began a general attack, and followed them for an hour. They killed three, wounded two, and took one prisoner, with a loss of only three horses.
During this time the Indians were praying for peace. On the 21st of April the Catskill and Mohican tribes asked for peace in behalf of the Esopus Indians, and in their name offered to give up all land on the Esopus and exchange prisoners and booty on the 23d of April. Also on the 23d some Mohawk chiefs appeared before Montague, the Secretary of Fort Orange, and presented, in the name of the Esopus Indians, eighteen fathoms of sewan, soliciting a treaty of peace. This was declined for want of authority to act in the premises, and the petitioners were referred to the director and council.
About this time three sachems of the Mohican tribe— Aepjen, Assamad, and Beresbay — appeared before the director in behalf of the Esopus Indians. Laying down two strings of wampum, one of them said :”his is a pledge that the Esopus sachems, Kaelebackers, young and old, men and women, desire peace." These belts were taken, but Stuyvesant told them that peace could only be assured by their coming to New Amsterdam. Then, presenting two other belts, they asked that the prisoners might be released. This they were told was impossible, and the wampum was returned. They then laid down twelve and renewed the request. This was also refused.
The Indians, finding their efforts fruitless for the release of the prisoners, one of their number, after a short consultation, laid a belt of wampum at the director's feet, and requested that the war be confined to the Esopus country. They were assured that as long as they remained friendly to the Dutch they would not be molested. Other belts of wampum were now laid at his feet " to wipe out the remembrance of the rejection of those they had offered for the prisoners. ' ' These were taken, and each was given a blanket, a piece of frieze, an axe. a knife, a pair of stockings, two small kettles, and one pound of powder. They then left, apparently satisfied, taking with them a pass for the Esopus chiefs.
On the next day, May 25th, 1660, about twenty of the Indian captives were sent by the director to the island of Curacoa, with directions that they be employed there or at Bunaire with the company's negroes. [ in effect he sold them into slavery.] Three or four others were kept to be punished '' as might be thought proper or necessity might demand."
The only excuse Stuyvesant gave for this act, was that "their enlargement would have a tendency to create disaffection toward our nation. Our barbarous neighbors would glory as if they had inspired us with terror."
Stuyvesant in this act evinced a great lack of good policy and acuteness as a statesman . It was never forgotten by the Indians, and they awaited their time for the terrible retribution of blood.
Questioning, as the writer [Marius Schoonmaker]does, the policy and humanity of the government of New Amsterdam in transporting the Indian captives to Curacoa, it is proper that he should give the reasons as [p 17] contained in the resolution of the council, as passed May 26th, 1860. "
“It is quite evident from the proposition and the talk of the Savages, that we shall not obtain a firm and stable peace with the Esopus savages, unless the captured Esopus Indians (of whom the eleven here and the others still in prison at the Esopus are all bold and hard hearted fellows, and the most inconsiderate of the tribe) are released, or they are deprived of all hope ever to get them back, and they are forced to a solid peace by force of arms (with God's blessing). Having considered this, after several serious deliberations, it has been decided unanimously, that to release them would not only tend to create disregard and contempt of our nation among neighbors, as well as our own subjects, but also the neighboring barbarians, and especially the Esopus savages would glory in it, as if they inspired such great awe to our People, that we were afraid to arouse their anger, and that we had no courage, to treat, according to their merits, and as an example for others, the prisoners among whom there are some, who have dared to murder our People, captured by them, in cool blood and with unheard cruelty. Hence we have, for the above stated and other reasons, judged it to be best, to send the aforesaid Indian Captives to Curacao by the first good opportunity, and at the expense of the Company, to be employed there or at Bonayro with the negroes in the service of the Company, and to keep here only two or three of the aforesaid Captives, who have murdered our prisoners in cool blood, and to punish them, at the proper time, in such a manner, as shall be decided upon, in the mean time to continue a defensive and offensive war against the Esopus savages, and inflict all possible harm upon them, until such time, that we can obtain a peace with them on favorable conditions."
On the 27th of May, Smit sent out seventy-five men with an Indian prisoner, Disquaaras, as guide. They discovered, " at the second fall on Kit David's Kill" — supposed to be Lefevre's Falls, at the Rock Lock, in the town of Rosendale — a few Indians planting maize on the opposite bank. The creek being high, the Dutch could not cross, but the Indians fled, and the Dutch returned to the fort.
Smit having been informed by Maritje Hansen, wife of Juriaen Westphael, that the Indians had located “about nine miles or three hours farther up the stream above mentioned that the fall, where the stream can be easily forded,” he sent his men forthwith to take the Indians by surprise. When within sight of their dwellings they saw some women and children planting, who, being warned of the approach of the Dutch by the barking of the dogs, fled, leaving behind them Preymaker, a chief of their tribe, who [p 18] was crippled and bent with age. He was designated as "the oldest and best of their chiefs." He, armed with a gun, six knives, and a tomahawk, demanded : "What are ye doing here, ye dogs ?" and at the same time leveled his gun at them. That was at once snatched from his grasp, and he was then disarmed and put in charge of a guard. He lived below Hurley, and the stream Preymaker was named after him.
They then crossed the creek to the other Indian dwellings, and. destroyed all they could find. Being about to return, and finding the Indian Chief Preymaker an incumbrance, as "being too old to walk and the distance too great to carry him," they struck him down with his own axe. On their way back they were attacked by some Indians concealed in the bushes, and had one man wounded. " Making fight, the Indians fled to a thick woods, where they could not be pursued, and the soldiers marched home."
On the 3d of June, Oratany, chief of the Hackensack and Hav- erstraw Indians, at the instance of Seewackamano, one of the Esopus sachems, appeared before Stuyvesant, and sued for peace in their name. He told Stuyvesant that Seewackamano, only a few days before, had called together the Wanwassutje Indians (the Warwassings), and asked them what they would do. " We will fight no more was their answer." He next asked the squaws "what seemed best." They answered, "Let us plant our field in peace and live in quiet." He then went to the young men, who lived apart in another quarter, "and asked their opinion too." Their answer was, "They would not kill hog or fowl any more ."That, having thus the consent of all classes to make peace, he had come down to get them—the Ha«kensacks and Haverstraws—to intercede in their behalf. While there in that behalf, and only the day before, he had heard of the expedition of Smit and the killing of "their greatest and best chief." The news had fallen heavily on his heart, and he did not know what to do. " He had gone home to appease his people, would return in ten or twelve days, and left the Hackensacks and Haverstraws to do the best they could with the Dutch ; for himself he had no hope."
Stuyvesant assured him that the Christians wanted peace. The old chief replied : " It is strange, then, that your people have so lately killed their chief. They mourn his loss."
It was then agreed that there should be a truce, while he, Oratany, and his sachems went up to Esopus with Claes de Ruyter, to see what was the true disposition of the Indians. Claes was then authorized to go with them and make a treaty, provided they would return the ransom paid for prisoners afterward murdered, and retire from the Esopus land. Claes and Commander Smit soon reported that they were wiling to accept those terms, but [p19] wanted the director to come with an interpreter called Weathercock. The Minnisink savages, who had engaged with the Esopus, also wanted terms.
The council of New Netherland concluded to send Stuyvesant to Esopus with two old burgomasters, Martin Cregier and Oloff Stevenson Van Cortlandt, to advise with him. On the 7th of July this party left Manhattan. On the 9th they arrived at Esopus, and they received on board the Highland chiefs, who sent two Indians to notify the Esopus Indians. The Esopus Indians did not appear until the 14th of July, toward evening. On the next day, the 15th of July, there was a memorable gathering of Christians and savages " on the flat near the strand gate," just without the enclosure of the village, " under the sky of heaven." There were met in conference the Indian sachems Kaelkop, See- wackamano, Nosbabowan, and Pemmyrameck ; Esopus : Adog- beguewalgus, Requescecade, Ogkuekelt ; Maquas : Eskyras, alias Aepje-Ampumst ; Mohiccms : Keesewing, Machacknemenn ; Cats- Mils : Onderis, Hoeque, Kaskongeritschage ; Minquas : Isses- chahga, Wisachganio ; Wappingers : Oratany, Carstaugh ; Hack- ensacJcs : Warchen ; St-aten Island : together with the director and his advisers, the interpreter, " Old Weathercock, Arent Van Curler," and all the inhabitants of Esopus. After much talking with the Indians to and fro, and Stuyvesant consenting to peace, Onderis addressed the Esopus sachems, and said: "Ye must not renew this quarrel; neither kill horse nor cow, nor steal any property. AVhatever ye want ye must purchase or earn." After some more talking to and fro, he said : " Throw down the hatchet. Tread it so deep into the earth that it shall never be taken up again." He then presented them a belt of white wampum. The Macquas then addressed the Dutch, and charged them not to renew the quarrel, " nor beat the Esopus savages in the face and then laugh at them." Then, taking an axe from the hands of an Esopus chief, he threw it on the ground, jumped on it, and said : " Now, they will never commence this quarrel again." The Esopus chief, rising slowly, said : " We have permitted the hatchet to be taken from our hands and trodden in the ground. We will never again take it up." The conditions of peace were then submitted and agreed to substantially, as follows : All hostilities were to cease, all injuries forgiven and forgotten. The Dutch to have all the land of Esopus, and the Indians to depart from and not plant thereon. The directors to pay eight [p 20] hundred schepels corn for the Christian prisoners, " one half this harvest, and the other half next year, when the maize is ripe." The Indians were not to kill any horses, cattle, or hogs ; and if they did, were to pay for them, or remain under arrest until damages were paid, the Dutch agreeing to the same terms. There was not to be war for murder, but the guilty parties were to be punished. The Indians were not to approach the plantations or dwellings armed, and only to drink brandy and spirituous liquors in their own camp, in the woods at a great distance. The peace was to include the friends of both sides, and the chiefs mentioned were to be security for the observance of these conditions by the Esopus Indians.

Thus terminated what has been styled the first Esopus war. As has before been said, we have but little information in original sources pertaining to it.

It seems that the war ended when the survival of the tribe was threatened, but it also seems that the sending of members of the tribe to a life of slavery brought deep resentment which may have been one of the contributing factors in bringing about the Second Esopus War.

Sunday, July 13, 2008

The Second Esopus War, 1663


Secretary of State


Charles van Benthuysen, public printer.


With an account of the Massacre at Wildwyck,
(now Kingston,)
And the names of those killed, wounded, and taken prisoners, by the Indians on that occasion.
Translated from the original Dutch MS

Being pages 29 through 62 of the above named Volume IV


The following narrative gives an account of the Massacre at Kingston (Wildwyck) and Hurley (the New Village or Niew Dorp). This is of interest to the Descendants of Keziah Keturah Van Benthuysen, because the families of Willem Crom—Mayken Hendricks–Jan Joosten, Evert Pels and Aert Jacobsen Van Wagenen (Ancestors of Keziah Keturah Van Benthuysen) were living there at the time. The general area is often referred to as the Esopus, because the Esopus creek runs into the Hudson river nearby. In fact the region was called the Esopus prior to the establishment of Wildwyck and Niew Dorp.
Maycke Henricks, is one of our ancestors who was living in Niew Dorp, the new village, when the attack came, and she and two of her children were taken prisoner. Her first husband Willem Crom died in Holland in about 1659, after which she married Jan Joosten van Meteren. They with 5 children came to the New World in September of 1662 and soon thereafter settled in Niew Dorp, i.e. the new Village now called Hurley.
One family history writer says that One of the sons of Evert Pels was also captured and carried away in the Indian attack and that when he was finally found about a year and a half later, he was married to an Indian Girl and would not leave her and their child to return to Kingston; but remained thereafter with the Indian people. His name is not listed among to captives, however it may be in the list communicated to the Council of New Netherlands on the 10th of June. The attack on Kingston occurred on Thursday, the 7th of June, 1663.

The Court at Wildwyck to the Council of N. Netherland.
Right Honorable, most respected, wise, prudent and very discreet Lords.
We, your Honors' faithful subjects have to report, pursuant to the order of the Rt Honble Heer Director General, in the form of a Journal, that in obedience to his Honor's order, received on the 30th of May last, we caused the Indian Sachems to be notified on the 5th of June, to be prepared to expect the arrival of the Rt Honble Heer Director General, to receive the promised presents, and to renew the peace. This notification was communicated to them through Capt. Thomas Chambers, to which they answered—“If peace were to be renewed with them, the Honble Heer Director General should, with some unarmed persons, sit with them in the open field, without the gate, as it was their own custom to meet unarmed when renewing peace or in other negotiations. "But they, unmindful of the preceding statement, surprized and attacked us between the hours of 11 and 12 o'clock in the forenoon on Thursday the 7th instant Entering in bands through all the gates, they divided and scattered themselves among all the houses and dwellings in a friendly manner, having with them a little maize and some few beans to sell to our Inhabitants, by which means they kept them within their houses, and thus went from place to place as spies to discover our strength in men. And after they had been about a short quarter of an hour within this place, some people on horseback rushed through the Mill gate from the New Village, crying out; “The Indians have destroyed the New Village!” And with these words, the Indians here in this Village immediately fired a shot and made a general attack on our village from the rear, murdering our people in their houses with their axes and tomahawks, and firing on them with guns and pistols; they seized whatever women and children they could catch and carried them prisoners outside the gates, plundered the houses and set the village on fire to windward, it blowing at the time from the South. The remaining Indians commanded all the streets, firing from the corner houses which they occupied and through the curtains outside along the highways, so that some of our inhabitants, on their way to their houses to get their arms, were wounded and slain. When the flames were at their height the wind changed to the west, were it not for which the fire would have been much more destructive. So rapidly and silently did Murder do his work that those in different parts of the village were not aware of it until those who had been wounded happened to meet each other, in which way the most of the others also had warning. The greater portion of our men were abroad at their field labors, and but few in the village. Near the mill gate were Albert Gysbertsen with two servants, and Tjerck Claesen de Wit; at the Sheriff's, himself with two carpenters, two clerks and one thresher; at Cornelius Barentsen Sleght's, himself and his son ; at the Domine's, himself and two carpenters and one labouring man ; at the guard house, a few soldiers ; at the gate towards the river, Henderick Jochemsen and Jacob, the Brewer; but Hendrick Jochemsen was very severely wounded in his house by two shots at an early hour. By these aforesaid men, most of whom had neither guns nor side arms, were the Indians, through God's mercy, chased and put to flight on the alarm being given by the Sheriff. Capt. Thomas Chambers, who was wounded on coming in from without, issued immediate orders (with the Sheriff and Commissaries,) to secure the gates; to clear the gun and to drive out the Savages, who were still about half an hour in the village aiming at their persons, which was accordingly done. The burning of the houses, the murder and carrying off of women and children is here omitted, as these have been already communicated to your Honors on the 10th June. After these few men had been collected against the Barbarians, by degrees the others arrived who it has been stated, were abroad at their field labors, and we found ourselves when mustered in the evening, including those from the new village who took refuge amongst us, in number 69 efficient men, both qualified and unqualified. The burnt palisades were immediately replaced by new ones, and the people distributed, during the night, along the bastions and curtains to keep ­watch.
On the 10th inst., 10 horsemen were commanded to ride down to the Redoubt1 and to examine its condition. They returned with word that the soldiers at the Redoubt had not seen any Indians. They brought also with them the Sergeant, who had gone the preceding morning to the Redoubt, and as he heard on his return of the mischief Committed by the Indians in the village, he went back to the Redoubt and staid there. In addition to the Sergeant they brought the men who had fled from the new village.
On the 16th , towards evening, Sergeant Christiaen Niessen went with a troop of soldiers, sent us by your Honors, being 42 men, and three wagons, to the Redoubt, with letters for the Manhatans, addressed to your Honors, and to bring up ammunition from the Redoubt. On their return, the Indians made an attempt at the first hill, to take the ammunition from these troops. The Sergeant having divided his men into separate bodies, evinced great courage against the Indians, skirmishing with them from the first, to past the second hill, and defending the wagons so well that they arrived in safety in the village. He had, however, one killed and six wounded. The dead man was brought in next morning, having been stripped naked, and having had his right hand cut off by the Indians. Some of the Indians were also killed, but the number of these is not known. This skirmishing having been heard in the village, a reinforcement of horse and foot was immediately ordered out, but before they arrived the Indians had been put to flight by the above named Sergeant.
This, Right Honorable Lords, is what we have deemed necessary to communicate to you in the form of a journal as to how and in what manner the Indians have acted towards us and we towards them in the preceding circumstances. And we humbly and respectfully request your Honors to be pleased to send us hither for the wounded by the earliest opportunity, some prunes and linen with some wine to strengthen them, and whatever else not obtainable here your Honors may think proper; also, carabines, cutlasses, and gun flints, and we request that the carabines may be Snaphaunce, as the people here are but little conversant with the use of the arquebuse (vyer roer) ; also some spurs for the horsemen. In addition to this, also, some reinforcements in men inasmuch as harvest will commence in about 14 days from date. Herewith ending, we commend your Honors to God's fatherly care and protection. Done, Wildwyck this 20th June 1663.
1 Rondout.

Barent Gerretsen murdered in front of his house.
Jan Alberts " in his house.
Lechten Dirreck “ on the farm.
Willem Jansen Seba “ opposite his door.
Willem Jansen Hap “ in Pieter van Hael's house.
Jan the Smith “ in his house.
Hendrick Jansen Looman “ on the farm.
Thomas Chambers' negro “ on the farm.
Hey Olferts “ in the gunner's house.
Hendrick Martensen on the farm.
Dominicus in Jan Alberts' house.
Christiaen Andriesen on the Street.
Lichten Dirreck's wife burnt, with her lost fruit, behind Barent Gerritsen's house
Mattys Capito's wife killed and burnt in the house.
Jan Albertsen's wife, big with child, killed in front of her house.
Pieter van Hael's wife shot and burnt in her house.
Jan Alberts little girl murdered with her mother.
Willem Hap's child burnt alive in the house.
Taken Prisoners.
Master Gysbert's wife1. Hester Douwe.
Sara the daughter of Hester Douwe.
Grietje, Domine Leer's wife.
Femmetje, sister of Hilletje, being recently married to Joost Ariaens.
Tjerek Claessen de Witt's oldest daughter.
Dominie Laer's child
Ariaen Gerritsen's daughter.
Two little boys of Mattys Roeloffsen.
Killed in the New Village:
Marten Harmensen found dead and stript naked behind the wagon.
Jacques Tyssen beside Barent's house.
Derrick Ariaensen shot on his horse.
1 Surgeon Imbroch's wife was the daughter of the Honble Mr. La Montagne, Vice Director of fort Orange
Taken prisoners:
Jan Gerritsen on Volckert's bouwery.
Women. Children.
Of Louwis du bois, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 3
of Mattheu blanchan, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Of Antoni Crupel, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Of Lambert Huybertsen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
Of Marten Harmensen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
Of Jan Joosten 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
Of Barent Harmensen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Of Grietje Westercamp, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
Of Jan Barents, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Of Michiel Ferre, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Of Henderick Jochems, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Of Henderick Martensen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Of Albert Heymans; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
— — Women 8 Ch'n.26
Houses burnt in Wildwyck.
Of Michiel Ferre, . . . . . .. 1 Of Hans Carolusen, . . . . . . 1
Of Willem Hap . . . . . . . . . 1 Of Pieter van Hael, . . . . . .. 1
Of Mattys Roeloffsen, . . . . 1 Of Jacob boerhans, . . . . . . . . .2
Of Albert Gerretsen, . . . . . 1 Of Barent Gerretsen, . . . . . . 2
Of Lichten Dirrick, . . . . . . 1 Of Mattys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Houses 12
The new village is entirely destroyed except a new uncovered barn, one rick and a little stack of reed.
Wounded in Wildwyck
Thomas Chambers, shot in the woods.
Henderick Jochemsen, “ in his house.
Michiel Ferre,2 “ in front of his house.
Albert Gerretsen, “ in front of his house.
Andries Barents, “ in front of his house.
Jan du parck, “ in the house of Aert Pietersen Tack.
Henderick the Heer Director General's Servant in the street in front of Aert Jacobsen3.
Paulus the Noorman in the street.
2 Died of his wounds on the 16th June.. 3 Ancestor of Keziah Keturah Van Benthuysen; 4 Jan Joosten’s wife was Maykey Hendircks, widow of Willem Crom.

On the 4th July we entered the Esopus Kill in front of the Redoubt with the two Yachts, and sent the Sergeant Pieter Ebel with 40 men up to the village Wildwyck to fetch wagons ; he returned to the river side about 2 o'clock in the afternoon accompanied by Serjeant Christiaen Nyssen, 60 men and 9 wagons; they loaded these and departed with them to the Village where I arrived towards evening. Saw nothing in the world except three Indians on a high hill near the Redoubt.
5th ditto. Returned to the water side with 60 men, 10 horsemen, and 9 wagons to bring up supplies, but saw scarcely anything on the way.
6th ditto. Made another journey to the shore with 10 wagons and brought up the remainder of the supplies, but did not perceive anything. In the evening went for grass with 12 wagons 30 Soldiers and 10 horsemen ; then saw 10 or 12 Indians calling to each other but nothing further transpired.
7th ditto. Went again twice for grass with 50 men and 12 horsemen but saw nothing. Two Indians arrived at the fort about 2 o'clock in the afternoon with a deer and some fish. Said they came from the river side and that they had been at the Redoubt where they had traded some fish for tobacco ; that they had left their Canoe at the Redoubt, & that they are Wappinger Indians. Meanwhile detained them and conveyed them to the guard house.
8th ditto. Sunday. About noon came 5 Indians near our fort—they called out to us to know if we had any Indians in the fort ? To which we answered, Yes : They asked, why we detained them as they were Wappinger Indians ? To which we answered, they ought to keep at a distance as we could not distinguish one tribe of Indians from another, and if we found that they had not done any injury to the Dutch, we should release them. We told them also, that they must keep away from here, and go home, for if we should meet them in the woods we would kill them as well as the other Indians—if they were desirous to come here to speak to us, they must stick up a white flag. Whereupon they answered, 'Tis well, adieu; and thereupon went their way. Immediately after their departure, sent out 40 soldiers and 10 horsemen to look after the cattle, whether they had not been near them, but on reaching these they did not remark any mischief—they, therefore, returned with the cattle to the fort. After the afternoon sermon we examined the oldest Indian as to whether he was not acquainted with some Esopus Indians and whether he would not lead us to them—­gave him fair words and promised him a present ; for the Dutch at the Esopus bad told us that some Indians dwelt about two miles from there wherefore we were resolved to go in search of them the same evening with 50 men. But this Indian. said to us—Go not there, for the Indians have gone thence and dwell now back of Magdalen Island1 on the main land in the rear of a Cripple bush on the east side of Fort Orange river, and number 8 men 9 women and 11 children ; and he even offered to guide us thither if we had a boat to put us across the river. Whereupon it was resolved by the Council of War to despatch two parties that same evening to procure some craft to put us over the river. I, therefore, sent Sergeant Christiaen Nyssen and Jan Peersen. each with 16 men, to look up a boat. The same old Indian betrayed his companion who had come with him on the preceding day into the fort—­stating that he had assisted the Esopus Indians against the Dutch, and for so doing had received in hand 6 fathom of Sewan, [wampum]; that 9 Wappingers and 30 Manissings were with the Esopus Indians and aided them—also that he said they were together about 200 Indians strong.
1 Magdalen island is situate between the Upper and Lower Red Hook Landings. These Indians must therefore have been in the town of Redhook—Dutchess co. 9th ditto. (July 1663) Monday I marched very early [with 40 Soldiers] and.10 horsemen to the water side to ride up and fetch planks to construct a Cabin to store the provisions and ammunition. About o'clock the two detachments, I had sent out in the evening, to look for craft, came to me at the Redoubt, but they saw neither Indians nor boat. They were marched all together to fort Wildwyck and arrived there about 12 o'clock Then sent 30 men with 10 horsemen out-scouting, who returned about 4 o'clock; had seen nothing. About 6 o'clock Peiter Wolfertsen' and Lieutenant Stilwil arrived here with their troops; I then immediately called a Council of War and it was resolved unanimously to set out in the evening with 20 Soldiers and 12 Indians under the command of Christiaen Niesen and Peiter Wolfertsen in order to visit the East shore near Magdalen Island; to see if they could not surprize the Esopus Indians who were lying there; they took the old Indian along as a guide, who well knew where they lay.
10th ditto. I have gone again to the river side with 40 Soldiers and 10 horsemen to fetch plank. In returning, the horse men on the right flank rode too far from the foot soldiers and alongside the mountain on which 12 to 15 Savages lay, in ambush who simultaneously fired a at the horsemen one of whom they shot through the boot, and grazed a horse. On hearing this, we immediately reinforced the cavalry with 25 men, pursued the Indians through the mountain a good half hour, but they would not once make a stand; we therefore returned to the wagons where I had left 15 men and marched together to the Village of Wildwyck. In the afternoon, the scouting party went out again ; I sent therewith Lieutenant Stilwil with 15 men of his Company and Sergeant Pieter Ebel with 28 men & 20 Indians with 10 horsemen. They discovered nothing except a path which the Indians found by which Savages had recently passed to their fort; they followed this a long was, but saw nothing. Meanwhile, they returned all together.
11th ditto. Again sent out a party to the Mountain near the water side, but they saw nothing; they returned in the evening.
12th ditto. Pieter Wolfertsen & Sergeant Niessen returned with their troops, bringing with them one Squaw and three children whom they had captured; they killed five armed Indians and a woman; the Esopus Captain (Weldoverste) was among the slain; they cut off his hand which they brought hither. Had not the Indian led them astray and missed the houses, they would have surprized all the Indians who were there to the number of 28, with women and children. For through the mistake of the Indian, our people first came about midday where they found the Indians posted and in arms. They immediately fell on the latter and routed and pursued them. In the chase one of our soldiers was slain. Meanwhile the huts were plundered wherein they found 19 Blankets 9 Kettles a lot of Sewan; and 4 Muskets belonging to the Indians who were killed. They returned on board with the plunder and four prisoners, and arrived safe except one of our Soldiers who was bit in the leg by a rattlesnake. About 5 o'clock in the afternoon, I went with 60 men to the river side, to bring up the booty and prisoners; returned to the fort in the evening ; encountered no harm.
13th ditto. Examined the Squaw prisoner and enquired if she were not acquainted with some Esopus Indians who abode about here? She answered that some Cattskill Indians lay on the other side near the Sagers Kill, but they would not fight against the Dutch; says also that an Indian on the preceding evening before our people attacked them, had brought news from the fort of the Esopus Indians that many Dutch, English and Indians had gone from the Manhatans to the Fsopus and that they should be on their guard, for the Hackinsack Indians had brought the news to the fort of the Esopus Indians. Then Long Jacob, the Chief who lived there with the Indians demanded,
What should they do? Should they fly toward their fort or not? They then concluded to remain there, for the Chief said, Were the Dutch to come to the Fort and we also were in it, we should be all slaughtered; tis best for us to remain here on the opposite shore; the Dutch would not learn much of us; States also further, that the Indian had said that 40 Manissing Indians had arrived at their fort, and that 40 more were to come on the neat day; further says, that each night they conveyed the prisoners always to a particular place without the fort and remained themselves therein; says also that they were resolved to make a stand in their fort, and that they had, moreover, in their fort 9 horses with which they draw palisades, and had sold a horse to the Mannissing Indians; that the Indians had also three houses in which they reside, these were 4 hours farther off; says also, that one Sachem in the fort would advise them to negotiate peace, but the other Sachems would not listen to it; says also, that the fort is defended by three rows of palisades, and the houses in the fort encircled by thick cleft palisades with port holes in them, and covered with bark of trees; says that the fort is quadrangular but that the Angles are constructed between the first and second rows of palisades and that the third row of palisades stands full eight feet off from the others towards the interior, between the two first rows of palisades and the houses, and that the fort stands on the brow of a hill and all around is table land.
Sent also for Mr Gysbert's wife1 [She had been taken prisoner as before stated by the Indians on the burning of the village of Wildwyck but had effected her escape – Ed] and asked her if it were so? She answered, it was true, and said they had built a point near unto the water to secure it. Then again examined the Wappinger prisoner and asked, why he had aided the Esopus Indians? Said it was not true and that his mate the old Indian, had belied him. Asked him if he would guide us to the fort of the Esopus Indians? Answered, Yes; and says the Esopus Indians are about 80 warriors strong, but does not know how many have come there belonging to other tribes. Says also that the fort is defended with triple rows of palisades, as the Squaw had stated. Whereupon the council of war decided, firstly to await news either from above or below as to what the Mohawks had resolved respecting the prisoners—whether they could have them restored before our troops should proceed against the fort to achieve the self same thing. On the same day two detachments went out; one to scout, the other on an expedition, but they returned in the evening, having seen scarcely any thing.
14th ditto. (July 1663) 50 men were out again in the woods behind the new burnt village and a scouting party, but hardly any thing occurred, nor was any thing seen.
15th ditto. The Heer de Decker arrived here with Jan Davets and 5 Mohawks; had them conducted from the river side by 50 men and 10 horsemen. Nothing else transpired.
16th ditto. The Heer de Decker assembled .the Council of War and it was resolved that Jan Davets accompany the 5 Mohawks to the fort of the Esopus Indians to see on what terms the Christian prisoners will be restored, but after divers discourses Jan Davets declined going with them, although the Heer de Decker had, the day before, drawn up and prepared an Instruction for him, but before the time appointed he refused to go. Meanwhile it is resolved that the Mohawks should go thither, and they requested of us that they might take with them some of our prisoners to present them to the Esopus Indians as a suitable introduction to obtain some of their prisoners in return, or to induce them to surrender them. The Council concluded that a Captive Girl should be given to the Mohawks and about 63 guilders in Sewan in order to ascertain what they could accomplish thereby; for it was reported at Fort Orange, as the Heer de Decker informed us, that the Esopus Indians had said—If they could obtain payment for the land, named the Great Plot (het groote Stuck,) then they should give up all the prisoners. Now, it is impossible to determine whether this be so or not. Meanwhile, the Mohawks who were going thither were directed to inquire shout it, and they promised us to bring us an answer the next day about noon. Had 3 parties out in the interim; one to the shore to bring cattle, another for wood and a third, scouting. They returned all at the same time; experienced no difficulty.
17th ditto. (July 1663) Three parties were out in ambush, but saw nothing.
18th ditto. Six sloops arrived here from the Manhatans in which Juriaen Blanck brought up provisions for our troops ; had them conveyed up under a guard; a party was also in the field to protect those reaping the Barley and a party lay in Ambush. They returned towards evening; saw nothing.
19th ditto. Sent out 10 Soldiers and 10 Indians scouting, they did not meet any one. In the evening about 7 o'clock, the three Mohawks returned from the Esopus Indians. They had brought three Indians and two Dutch women and 2 Children whom they left about two hours from Wildwyck; said, they had been freely given, and had they not been so tired, they should have brought them with them to the fort; said the Esopus Indians had abandoned the fort, and had retired to the Mountains where they were mostly dispersed here & there hunting.
20th ditto. Sent Jan Davets with 2 Mohawks to the 3 Esopus Indians who were in the woods with the above named prisoners, to see if he could get, and bring with him the four prisoners from here, and have a talk with the Indians relative to the other prisoners; whether they will not restore these to us; returned about noon with a woman whom one of the Mohawks had fetched; but he, himself, had not been with the Indians as one of the Mohawks had been taken sick and he was obliged to remain with him. In the afternoon one of the Mohawks returned thither, he took with him half a loaf for the prisoners who remained with the above mentioned Esopus Indians. Being come there, he asked the Esopus Indians whether they would not entrust the 3 prisoners to him to convey them to the Dutch; whereupon they allowed him to take the 3 prisoners, with whom he arrived at the fort about 11 o'clock at night, but under promise as they informed us, that they should have in return their three prisoners whom we held. The prisoners told us that the Esopus Indians had fled to a high mountain through fear of the Dutch, and that they lay here and there in small bands, and that the prisoners were also distributed and dispersed among them here and there, and were not together and that they would not trust them in their fort, and that the Indians daily threatened them—Should the Dutch come thither, we will give you a Knock and Kill you all at once. Were thus a long time in terror. Meanwhile we had some scouting parties out, who returned having seen nothing—had also a party to cut barley; came back safe.
21st ditto. Three Sloops have come from the Manhatans, with which a supply of provisions for this garrison has arrived in Rut Jacobsen's Yacht. Sent three convoys to the water side and parties to cut corn; but they saw nothing. Sent for the 5 Mohawks and Jan Davets acting as Interpreter, informed them what insults the Dutch of Esopus had from year to year experienced and suffered from the Indians, and that they now even this last time, had murdered and carried off our people, when we had given them no provocation. Whereupon they answered, Come, give us a piece of duffels; we shall afterwards go with it and see whether we shall not be able to recover all the prisoners. It was accordingly resolved by the Heer de Decker and Council of War, that a piece of duffels should be brought up from the river side and given them; which being done, they took the piece of duffels, cut it into three parts, and thus departed with it about 11 o'clock in the forenoon; with them went Jan Davets with the Squaw and 2 children who had been captured by us and were released in exchange for the 2 Dutch women and 2 children whom the Indians had brought back
22d ditto. A scouting party went out, but saw nothing.

23d ditto. (July 1663) A Party went to the river side to bring up supplies, and three, to cut and draw grain. They experienced no interruption.
24th ditto. Sent for all the wagons to make a journey to the river side to bring up the provisions which had been sent hither by the Executive government; but, only 4 wagons came. As I required ten, I excused these; Some refused to work for the Company* [The “Company” refers to the Dutch West India Company whose organization included the Government of the New Netherlands]; some gave for answer, if another will cart I also shall cart; some said, my horses are poor, I cannot cart; others said, my horses have sore backs, and other such frivolous answers that I was thus unable, this time, to bring up the Company's stores. Whereupon it was resolved by the Council of War, that the farmers should not be furnished with any men for their protection in the fields; unless they would assist in bringing up the Company's Supplies from the water side. Nay, further—one Tjerck Claesen de Wit, himself a magistrate, would turn Lieut. Stilwil's Soldiers out of a small house they occupied—he said, he had hired it, though he had, notwithstanding, neither possession of nor procuration for it, I gave him for answer, that I should remove them on condition that he, as a magistrate, would have them billetted in other houses as the men could not lie under the blue sky, and as they had been sent here by the Chief government for the defence of the Settlers. But he made no answer to this; and so there are other ringleaders and refractory people in this place. Meanwhile the convoy which was ready to conduct. the provisions, was dismist each to its own post until further orders. At noon I went with a troop of Dutch and Indians to the New Village where the Heer de Decker himself was; met with no interruption. A party was also out with the reapers. In the evening Jan Davets and the 5 Mohawks returned from the Esopus Indians­—they brought with them a female prisoner; they would not at present release any more prisoners, evinced great fierceness and repeatedly threatened to kill them, both the Mohawks and Jan Davets—­told them they should not release any more prisoners unless they should secure peace thereby, and that Corlaer and Rentslaer should come to their fort, and bring goods with them to conclude peace and to redeem the prisoners; said that they must be within ten days in their fort to conclude peace; said, that they demanded a truce during that time. Jan Davets also informed us, that he had seen but 4 prisoners in the fort, and that the others were scattered far and wide; says, there are about 30 warriors in the fort, and that the others dwelt without here and there; they also said they were determined to make a stand in the fort, whereupon we have resolved to go in search of them on the first opportunity.
25th ditto. The Heer de Decker left to-day for the Manhatans in the company's yacht, taking with him two of the wounded, and Jan du Parck, Surgeon, and two soldiers to take care of the sick; two sick Indians left also; sent along with them a convoy and 9 wagons to bring up the remainder of the goods. They returned and saw nothing. Also sent of two detachments with the reapers; they did not remark any thing. Convened the Council of War and it was unanimously resolved to send out an expedition against the Esopus Indians, which should start the next day, if the weather were favorable.
26th ditto. The following troops set out against the Esopus Indians, having as a Guide a woman who had been prisoner among them, to wit—of Captain Lieutenant Cregier's Company, 91 men; of Lieutenant Stilwil's, 30 men ; Lieutenant Couwenhoven with 41 Indians; [these Indians were of Long Island] volunteers from the Manhatans, 8; volunteers from the Esopus, 35 men, of whom 11 were horsemen, and 7 of the Honble Company's negroes, with two pieces of cannon and two wagons, the whole party provided each with one pound of powder and a pound of ball, 2lbs of hard bread and; a soft loaf, with 2lbs of pork and a Dutch cheese; left in garrison at Wildwyck 36 soldiers and 25 freemen. Marched out about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and came in the evening about two great miles from Wildwyck, where we remained until the moon rose. We then started anew; but could not march more than a long half hour on account of the cannon and wagons, which we could not get through the woods at night. We then bivouacked until day break.
27th ditto. (July 1663) We got on the right road when day dawned and continued our march. On the way we passed over much stoney land and hills, and had to tarry at the swampy, long, broken and even frequent kills (steams) where we halted and must cut trees to make bridges to pass over, and divers mountains were so steep that we were obliged to haul the wagons and cannon up and down with ropes. Thus our progress was slow. When about two miles from the Indian fort, sent forward Capt. Lieutenant Couwenhoven, Lieutenant Stilwil and Ensign Christiaen Niessen, with 116 men to surprise it. I followed, meanwhile, with the remainder of the force, the guns and wagons, but on coming within a short mile of the fort, found the way so impassable that I was under the necessity of leaving the cannon, as I could not get it farther. I left 40 men there and gave them orders to fortify themselves and set palisades around, which they did, and I followed the preceding troop with the remainder towards the Indian fort. On arriving there; found our people in possession of it, as it had been abandoned by the Indians two days before. Our Indians had caught a Squaw in the cornfield, whither she was coming to cut maize. Now the evening falling, for it was about 6 o'clock when we came to the fort, we passed the night there, having found 3 horses at their fort.
28th ditto. The Council of War assembled at the breaking of the day and unanimously resolved to go in search of the Indians to the mountain where the above mentioned female had been a prisoner and to take the. captured Squaw along. Whereupon Lieutenant Couwenhoven and Lieutenant Stilwil and Ensign Niessen were detached with 110 men, and remained in the fort with about 29 men. The above named troops then set forth towards the mountain and arrived where the Indians had been they had left that place also. The captured Squaw being asked if she did not know where the Indians had fled to, said they were on a great, high mountain, which she pointed out to them, distant about 2 miles, whither they had fled with the seven prisoners they had with them; where-upon the officers resolved to go to the other mountain in search of them, which they afterwards did with their troops, after experiencing vast difficulty, but found no Indians there. The Squaw being again questioned whether she did not know where they were ? said they had moved to another mountain, which she pointed out, about 4 miles from there, but there was no path thither. Being on the brow of the hill our people saw 9 Indians coming towards them, whereupon they fell flat, intending thus to surprise the Indians on their approach, but they did not succeed, our people being noticed at a distance of about 2 musket shots. Eight of them ran off in an oblique direction, and the ninth attempted to run back to the place whence they had come. As our force was discovered on all sides, and even our Indians said that no savages could be caught at this time as they were every where fully informed of us, it was resolved to return to the fort, where they arrived about one o'clock. After they had taken some rest, I convened the Council of War to determine what was now best to be done. They unanimously resolved to cut down their corn and burn it, together with last year's maize, which they still had in pits in great abundance in their corn-fields and around their fort. Whereupon I went out of their fort with 50 men to a distance of a full half mile; there cut down several plantations of maize, threw into the fire divers pits full of maize and beans, returned to the fort at sun-down and saw that divers Indians and horsemen found some pits with plunder in the vicinity of the fort, which they brought in. Meanwhile I had the whole party called together, and told them that all the plunder that was or should be found was to be in common, and was so understood by the Council of War before we started from our fort. Whereupon one of the horsemen stepped out of the troop and said to me, What we've found we'll keep and divide among us horsemen. To which I said, that they should not do that, for they were under command. Whereupon the horseman, named Jan Hendricksen, answered—They are under the command of no man but Long Peter, whom they, forsooth ! called their Cornet, and uttered divers unmannerly words in presence of all the officers. Upon which I gave him 2 or 3 slaps of a sword, and he seemed as if he would put himself in a posture against me. But I being close up to his body he could not act as he wished, and I said to him that I should bring him to an account. This said Jan Hendricksen, with one Albert Heymans Roose, acted insolently on the 7th July. Whilst we were examining the two Wappinger Indians, in the presence of the Schout and Commissaries, in Thomas Chambers' room a messenger came in and said that two or three boors were without the door with loaded guns to shoot the Indians when they came forth. Whereupon I stood up and went to the door—found this Albert Heymans Roose and Jan Hendricksen at the door with their guns. Asked them what they were doing there with their guns ? They gave me for answer, We will shoot the Indians. I said to them, you must not do that. To which they replied, We will do it though you stand by. I told them in return, to go home and keep quiet or I should send such disturbers to the Manhatans. They then retorted, I might do what I pleased, they would shoot the Savages to the ground, even though they should hang for it; and so I left them. This Albert coming into the Council told the Commissaries that one of them should step out. What his intention with him was I can't say. This by way of memorandum. Meanwhile arrested Jan Hendricksen.
29th ditto. (July 1663) Four parties went out again to cut down the corn and to burn the old maize. About o'clock in the afternoon, Some Indians made their appearance on a high hill near the fort and called out to us, that they would come and fight us on the morrow whereupon we brought the captive Squaw out of the fort to speak to them, and they called out to her that they should now come and fight the Dutch, for the Dutch had now come and taken their fort, cut their corn and burnt all their old maize and that they should die of hunger. I said to them, the Dutch had gone in search of you to the mountain but ye always ran away and dare not make a stand. But the Indians would not give any answer, and so went away.
30th ditto. We, in two large parties, each of 80 men, cut down all the corn and burnt the old maize which remained in the pits. Returned to the fort, all together, in the evening, and made preparations to set out in the morning. Meanwhile the Indians who the day before had called out that they would come & fight us, did not make their appearance. We cut down nearly one hundred morgens1 of Maize [About 216 Acres] and burnt above a hundred pits full of corn and beans.
31st ditto. In the morning at the dawn of day set fire to the fort and all the houses, and while they were in full blaze marched out in good order, Capt Lieutenant Couwenhoven forming the van guard, Lieutenant Stilwil's Company the centre, and I with my company the rear guard. So arrived in safety at our fort about 9 o'clock in the evening with our cannon and wagons. Remarked scarcely anything on the way. The road or course from Wildwyck to the fort of the Esopus Indians lies mostly south west, about 10 [Dutch] miles from our fort.
1st August. In the morning heard two shots from the Redoubt on the riverside. Sent off ensign Christiaen Niessen with. 50 men. He found there the Honble Company's yacht in which the Heer Secretary van Ruyven had come. Had him escorted to the Village of Wildwyck, and did nothing more as it was a day of Fasting and Prayer.
2d ditto. Nothing occurred as it rained during the whole day and night.
3d ditto. The Heer Secretary departed on his return to the Manhatans, accompanied by Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the Indians being 41 in the whole, who would not remain any longer; also 5 of the Honble Company's Negroes. Through great intercession and promise of better behavior in future, the Council of war pardoned Jan Hendricksen the faults committed by him and he is released from confinement. Meanwhile I had two parties in the field with the reapers and one in Ambush. They saw nothing and returned in the evening. I this day sold, by public beat of drum, the three horses which we had brought with us from the Indians' fort.
4th ditto. (August 1663) A Mohegan Indian came from fort Orange; he had a pass from Monsieur Montagnie; brought two letters, one to Mr Gysbert and one to Hendrick Jochems; there was hardly any news in them except that they were longing to receive some intelligence relative to the condition of the Esopus. Convened the Council of war and invited thereto the Commissaries of the village Wildwyck, And made this Ordinance and read it to the people, both freemen and military, and had a copy fixed to each Beat or Post. It is, word for word, as follows :—
" ORDINANCE made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant Council of war at present commanding the troops and .Military in the Esopus or Wildwyck.
“WHEREAS we learn by daily experience that many, as well military as freemen, are removing from the Village Wildwyck, without the consent of the Capt Lieutenant and Commissaries of this Village, Therefore it is necessary that timely provision be made therefor, so that none may at any time fall into the hands of the barbarous Indians, our enemies; And that families every day unnecessarily waste and fire off powder and ball. Therefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of war, wishing to provide for and prevent all inconveniences and mischiefs which may arise therefrom, have ordered and directed, as they do hereby order and direct.
“Firstly, That no one, whether military or freeman shall, without the consent of the Captain Lieutenant, Council of war and Commissaries of this place, depart from this Village of Wildwyck, either in large or small bodies, whether to cut grain or for any other business whatsoever it may be, lest any of them may chance to fall into the hands of the barbarous Indians, our enemies ; and if any one remove beyond this village of Wildwyck without consent or proper convoy, whatever the business or occasion may be, he shall pay a fine of five and twenty guilders for the first offence; for the second fifty guilders and for the third offence an arbitrary punishment; And should any one, in violating and disobeying this order, happen to be captured by the Indians, our enemies, no expence or trouble shall be incurred for him, inasmuch as he, by his perverse and stiffnecked course, contrary to this Ordinance, will have brought down this misfortune on himself.
“If any one unnecessarily & perversely waste or fire off his powder and ball, be it on the departure or arrival of convoys or otherwise, he shall, for the first offence, pay a fine of three guilders for each shot; for the second offence six guilders and for the third offence suffer arbitrary punishment, unless when desirous to discharge his gun, being out of order or wet, he shall ask permission therefor from his superior or inferior officer. And for the better observance and obedience of this ordinance, the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War hereby particularly and imperatively command all Superior officers, Serjeants, and Corporals to pay strict attention that this Ordinance be observed and respected. Thus done in the village of Wildwyck by the Captain Lieutenant, Council of War and the proper Commissaries of said village, on the 4th of August 1663."
Same date a letter is also sent by the Mohegan Indians to Christoffel Davids at fort Orange requesting him to be pleased to come down to the Esopus on important business which we should then explain and communicate to him.
5th ditto. (August 1663) Thomas the Irishman arrived here at the Redoubt from the Manhatans. Meanwhile nothing was done as it was Sunday, and no detachments were sent out.
6th ditto. Sent a party of 32 men to lie in ambush, and two detachments with the reapers. They returned in the evening; perceived nothing.
7th ditto. Three detachments were sent out with the reapers; returned in the evening without having seen anything.
8th ditto. Sent out Ensign Niessen with a detachment to lie in ambush behind the New Village which was burnt, and observe the Indians. Also two parties with the reapers. They came back in the evening without having noticed anything.
9th ditto. Three detachments were again sent out; two in the field with the reapers and one in ambush. They returned towards evening having perceived nothing.
10th ditto. Sent out two detachments; one in the field with the reapers, the other in ambush behind the recently burnt village, under the command of Ensign Niessen. They came in towards evening without having observed any thing. Some yachts also touched at the Redoubt bringing letters from the Manhatans which they left at the Redoubt and then sailed upwards for fort Orange.
11th ditto. Received this morning the letters which the Yachts left at the Redoubt; had two parties in the field with the reapers; they returned in the evening without having seen anything.
12th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occured except sending two convoys to the Redoubt to relieve the men who lay there and to bring up some stores with Mr. Gysbert's wife coming from fort Orange who brings news that the Northern Indians had killed some Mohawks and a Mohegan, whereupon the Mohegans have obtained the consent of the Mohawks to build a fort. Nothing else occurred here.
13th ditto. Sent out two detachments with the reapers and one to lie in ambush. They returned in the evening; saw nothing. On the same day is made & enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant Council of War the following Ordinance for the maintenance as far as possible of better order, and the observance and enforcement of discipline among the Military, and read the same before the Military and freemen and affixed it at each post. It is word for word as follows :—
“Ordinance made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and the valiant Council of War commanding the Military in the Esopus and Village of Wildwyck.
“WHEREAS some in this Village of Wildwyck who follow the trade of selling strong drink to the military suffer some of them to get drunk not only on week days but especially on the Lord's Rest and Sabbath day, unfitting them for their proper duties, & more especially creating confusion and disorderly conduct; the Honble Company's Servants not hesitating to sell, pawn, and pledge their own necessaries for strong drink to the traders in intoxicating liquors; the traders also receiving the same; yea, even not hesitating to give them more credit and trust whether they have any thing to the good or not. Therefore the Capt. Lieutenant and valiant Council of War desirous to prevent as much as possible all disorders and mischiefs, have therefore ordained and directed as they hereby direct and ordain :—
“That none of the military, be his rank whatever it may be, presume to sell or to pawn for any
strong drink any of the stores advanced to him by the Honble Company on his monthly wages, for his
needs and support, under a fine of one month's wages.
“No one, whether military or freeman, following the business of selling strong drink, shall presume to take in pledge or endeavor to embezzle any property belonging to the military in exchange for strong drink, under the forfeiture of the tapped drink and to return to the owner free of cost and charges the received property and pay in addition a fine of twelve guilders as often as he is discovered so doing.
“All those who follow the trade of selling strong drink are further warned not to sell nor furnish any strong drink on the Lord's Rest and Sabbath day much less entertain any clubs, whether before or after the sermon on pain of forfeiting the strong drink tapped on that occasion, and in addition a fine of five and twenty guilders as often as they shall be caught in the act.
“Those who sell strong drink are also further warned they take heed not to sell any to the military either on credit or on account, be it in what manner it may be, on pain of not being paid therefor, unless on order of his superior officer. THUS DONE by the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War in the Village Wildwyck, this 13th August 1663."
14th ditto. Sent out fifty reapers to the burnt village, called the Great Plot, (now Hurley) and sent with them about thirty wagons and Ensign Neissen with a convoy of Eighty men; gave him orders to remain there all night with the reapers and binders, and the major part of the wagons and forty men per convoy. The remaining forty men returned to Wildwyck, and said Ensign with about one hundred and twenty men, as well reapers and binders as convoys, passed the night at the Great Plot because it was so distant, and they could not make up more than one sheaf for they could not begin the work as fresh as they wished. Brought the grain to Wildwyck as soon as it was cut down. Kept six parties by the way in ambush to protect the said wagons. However nothing occured on this day.
15th ditto. Brought more grain from the burnt Village wherefore I kept two parties in ambush and one with the reapers and two on the road for the protection of the wagons which went through and fro. Returned in the evening altogether; observed nothing.
16th ditto. Two parties are again sent out to the field with the reapers; came back in the evening without having seen anything.
17th. Two parties were again sent into the field with the reapers. Returned in the evening without seeing anything. The Heer Decker arrived here at the Redoubt from fort Orange ; had him escorted to the Village Wildwyck, but he did not tarry here long as his Honor was in a hurry to depart again. Had the said Heer de Decker escorted back to the river side and then he returned to the Manhatans. Nothing occurred this day. Gave three Englishmen leave to go to and return from the Manhatans. They belong to Lieutenant Stilwil's Company.
18th ditto. Had three detachments again in the field with the reapers; they returned in the evening; saw nothing. The Council of War resolved and concluded to send a party three miles from Wildwyck to some plantations of Esopus Indians planted with maize; whereupon Ensign Niessen was sent thither with fifty-five men. They went forth from Wildwyck about ten o'clock at night, and had a Dutchman named Jacob Jansen Stoutenborgh for a guide.
19th ditto. Was this morning with fifty men and sixteen wagons to the burnt Village to fetch grain ; came back to Wildwyck about eight o'clock. Did not see anything. About noon Ensign Niessen returned with his troop from the Indian maize land. Neither saw nor noticed any Indians. About three o'clock in the afternoon Christoffel Davids came from the Manhatans in a canoe. Brought with him a letter from the Heer General, dated 14th August, brought also a letter from Pieter Couwenhoven who lay with the Sloop in the Danskamer. [Six miles north of Newburgh, Orange Co.] The letter was dated 17th August, and addressed to me. Its contents were, That I should be on my guard for he was advised that the Esopus Indians together with the Manissings and Wappingers were prepared to attack and surprize our fort in about two days with four hundred men, and that they also daily threatened him in an insufferable manner; he daily expected the arrival of the Sachem who had already been four days gone about the captured Christians to learn what he should then do and what should be the issue of it. But he had not received any intelligence in all that time. He also writes—That the Indians who lay thereabout on the river side made a great uproar every night, firing guns and, kintekaying2, [The Delaware word, Gent'keh'n, to dance, seems to be engrafted here into the Dutch language] so that the woods rang again; and lie hoped to be with me in two days.—His letter contains divers other circumstances. Christoffel Davids informs us, that he slept one night with the Indians in their wigwams —that some Esopus Indians and Sachems were there who had four Christian captives with them, one of whom, a female captive, had secretly told him, Davids, that forty Esopus Indians had already been near our fort to observe the reapers and the other people. Whereupon the Council of war resolved to send for the Sheriff, who being come, an order was handed him directing him to warn all the Inhabitants not to go from the fort into the fields without a suitable escort, as directed in the preceding Ordinance of the 4th August. Said Christoffel Davids also informed us,—that the Indians had on shore several bowls and gourds with brandy, which they obtained daily from the Sloops, as the Indians had informed him they could get as much as they required and whatever powder and lead they wanted. Now, we cannot determine what this may amount to, but this I understand that the woman who is on board the sloop with Lieutenant Couwenhoven brought four ankers of brandy with her from the Manhatans, but none of it came ashore here.
20th ditto. (August 1663) Lieutenant Couwenhoven arrived with the yacht at the Redoubt; brings a Christian woman and boy with him; says he gave about Eighty guilders for the youth, and promised to give our captive Squaw for the woman. Left ninety guilders in pledge for her; the Council of War disapproved of his having promised the Squaw in exchange as such was not contained in the Director General and Council's Instruction to him. Says, the Indians promised him to bring in within two days, all the prisoners they had, and that he should return with her to them within that time. Says also, that two Mohawks coming from fort Orange in a canoe passed his yacht in the Wappingers Kill. They had full four hundred pounds of lead and over three hundred pounds of powder in the canoe. He would have them on board but they would not; so they passed by. The Dutch woman, who had been taken prisoner, was brought to bed of a young daughter on entering the Esopus Kill: Nothing occurred during the day as it rained almost incessantly, and the farmers could not go out in the fields to reap or to bring in the grain.
21st ditto. The Council of War resolved to send Lieutenant Couwenhoven down again with the Sloop. I victualled the yacht and gave him five Soldiers additional for his defence; also resolved to give him the two Indians and the Squaw which we had prisoners, but he is not to leave them out of his hands before we have our prisoners back. Furnished him also with an Instruction as to how he should act therein. It reads, word for word as follows:
" INSTRUCTION for Lieutenant Pieter Couwenhoven.
“WHEREAS Lieutenant Couwenhoven, sent by the Honble Director General &. Council to release the Christians captured by the Esopus Indians, lay several days near the Wappinger Indians who acted as mediators in the affair, and as yet could not effect much except releasing one child and a woman for which woman he promised to exchange the Squaw who had been captured by us, on condition that they should then bring all the Christian Captives to the river side and release them; and also promised the Wappinger Indians to take down with him the two Indians whom we captured. The Council of War, therefore, resolved and concluded to surrender. the two Indians & the Squaw, but on certain conditions and also by express order of the Heer Director General and Council, according to instruction accompanying the same, that no prisoners should go, or be released, unless we first had all our Christians, prisoners, out of their hands.
“Therefore, the said Council of War recommend and order Lieutenant Couwenhoven not to surrender nor give up any Indian or Squaw unless our Christian Captives be first released and exchanged and placed in our hands, but he is at liberty to promise the Indians, if they discharge all our prisoners and restore them to us, that they shall then again have and regain their prisoners, either in exchange or in some other manner as shall then be agreed to and arranged.
“Should Lieutenant Couwenhoven see no probability of obtaining back, receiving or releasing our captives, and the Indians be obstinately opposed to the discharge or release thereof he may watch his time and opportunity to seize as many Esopus Indians as possible, either on land or by inducing them with fair words to go on board, according as opportunities shall then offer; or if many Esopus Indians should come thither with the Christian Captives and refuse to surrender or give these up, he shall then endeavor to detain them on shore, whether by means of intoxicating liquors or by any other means he shall at the time judge most expedient, and then advise us immediately thereof by a yacht that may come there, in order that we may regulate ourselves accordingly as much as lies in our power so as to surprize and seize them. DONE, Wildwyck, the 21st August 1663."
Escorted said Couwenhoven to the Redoubt. on the river's side and he sailed again to the Wappingers in the yacht. A party was also in the field with the boors; they returned home without seeing anything.
22nd ditto. Sent out one escort with the reapers and two parties to lie in ambush, but it commenced raining about noon and they came in. The rain came down in such torrents that the boors were obliged to take up the Bridge lest it be carried away as it was three weeks ago. It is to be feared that considerable grain will be destroyed in the field for want of reapers, in consequence of the great rain that has fallen, for a great deal of grain lies under water and the farmers on an average have not harvested above one fourth part of it. Nothing else occurred to day, except that the great rain carried away several of the palisades of the fort.
23d ditto. Sent an Order to the Sheriff and Commissaries and directed them to have the palisades of the fort replaced. It reads word for word as follows :—

“The Sheriff and Commissaries of this Village of Wildwyck are hereby ordered and directed to have replaced and repaired the palisades of this Fort, which were washed away by the water, and the same is urgently required. DONE, Wildwyck the 23d August, 1663."
The Answer of the Court of the Village of Wildwyck
The Court of this Village Wildwyck having seen and read this, find that it cannot be done at present, inasmuch as the grain in the field is almost ruined, and it is necessary to draw it home as soon as possible with the aid of all hands. Wildwyck, 23d August, 1663, (was subscribed) ROELOF SWARTWOUT. Lower stood—By order of the Worshipful Court of the Village of Wildwyck,
(signed) MATTYS CAPITO Secretary.
Two detachments were out in the field with the reapers; did not remark any thing.
24th ditto. (August 1663) Sent out two detachments With the reapers and one in ambush. They returned in the evening, having seen nothing. Received a letter at night from Lieutenant Couwenhoven, which he had sent up from the Wappingers creek by an Indian, a Dutchman and two captive christian children belonging to the wife of the gunner who was on board the sloop with said Couwenhoven; and as the Indian told me he had given the captive Squaw, whom we had entrusted to said Couwenhoven, in exchange for these two children, without any hope of a general redemption; and that he had so thoughtlessly and contrary to orders surrendered this Squaw for the two children on an uncertainty, not knowing whether he should receive another prisoner or not; now let him defend himself to the Director General and Council. Said Couwenhoven's letter was to this effect : That he hopes to get all the prisoners, but that he should be in want of supplies; for the powder he has is good for nothing, and the cry among the Indians is all for powder and brandy; requests me to send him some, as it was for the public good; that the Sachem had gone with five men into the interior, and had promised him to return with all the Christian captives; had given him the Squaw in order to succeed the better for us, and he had a fair prospect for a good delivery. In case it happened otherwise then he should acquaint me of it, and so forth, as appears by his letter. It is Dated the 25th August, but I received it on the 24th August; this happened through a mistake of his in writing. Domine Blom departed hence to-day, with his wife, for the Manhatans, had him escorted to the river side by Ensign Niessen and forty men. Experienced no harm on the way.
25th ditto. Sent down the Indian and the Dutchman again to the sloop lying by the Wappingers, with some bread. Also sent a letter to Lieutenant Couwenhoven which reads as follows: “Good friend, Lieutenant Couwenhoven. Your letter came to hand, and I have noted its contents. As regards your surrender of the Squaw before you had in exchange all our prisoners, in my opinion it is not well done. But you, yourself, must vindicate that act. In answer to your request for Sewan and Brandy, I have none, as you well know, and the Council of War does not consider it prudent to furnish our enemies with powder at this conjuncture. You promise to do your best for our Christians in captivity, and to get these out of their hands. Should you not succeed, you will act according as you have been already instructed and told. I send you some bread and request you not to go to the Manhatans, but first come here to take off the sick and wounded. You can see whether you will not be able to obtain some sewan and brandy from the passing sloops, for if I had any and should send them to you, they would run great risk of being plundered on the way by the Indians. DONE, Wildwyck the 25th August, 1663." Had three parties out; two with the reapers and one in ambush. They returned in the evening having seen nothing.
26th ditto. Two escorts were down to the river-side to bring up supplies and some soldiers' wives coming from the Manhatans; a party lay in ambush. behind the newly burnt village; returned in the evening without having remarked any thing.
27th ditto. (August 1663) There were two detachments with the reapers in the field and one in ambush, returned in the evening without meeting any thing.
28th ditto. Had two parties again in the field and one in ambush; returned in the evening having seen nothing.
29th ditto. Two detachments were out again in the field with the reapers, and one in ambush. Saw nothing. A soldier of Lieut. Stilwil's Company was wounded by his Sergeant in some dispute respecting orders. Said soldier was arrested and afterwards examined by the court martial, and it was found that the Sergeant was as blameworthy as the soldier. The soldier, who is named Thomas Coeck, is condemned by the court martial to stand sentry with six muskets for the space of three days, and during one hour each day.
30th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven returned from the Wappingers at the Redoubt with the yacht, and arrived in Wildwyck with his people and the two Wappinger Indians, but released and liberated the Squaw there; could not obtain any more Christian captives from the Esopus Indians. The Wappinger Sachem had been with the Esopus Indians at their fort, (which they were erecting anew,) in order to ascertain if he could not obtain the release of the Christian captives. But when he had been two to three days with them in their new fort, to negotiate with them respecting the prisoners, two Mohawks and one Minqua came there with Sewan and a long message, which rendered the Esopus Indians so ill disposed towards the Wappinger Sachem that they caused him to depart. He then returned without receiving any other Christian Captives. He came on board of Lieutenant Couwenhoven and told the same to him, and said Lieutenant reported it to me. Now, I cannot imagine what there is in it. Convened the Council of War and they resolved and concluded to attack with one hundred and twenty men the Esopus Indians who reside in their new fort about four hours farther than their first fort which we had burnt. We take with us as a guide one of our captured Wappinger Indians. Meanwhile issued rations to the people, and orders to start on the expedition this evening or to-morrow morning; but as it began to rain in the afternoon we did not set out to day. Sent an Order to the Sheriff, Commissaries, and Superior officers of the Village of Wildwyck, which reads as follows:—
“WHEREAS another expedition is on foot against our enemies, the Esopus Indians, the Sheriff, Commissaries and Superior officers of the Burghery are requested to furnish twenty horse men from the hired men (Knechts) of this village of Wildwyck to accompany the military in the attack on the Indians. Done, Wildwyck the 30th August, 1663."
Answer of the Court to this Order.
The Court and Superior officers of this Village of Wildwyck having read the communication sent them by the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War have at their request convoked the farmers and read to them the aforesaid demand, whereunto they gave for answer that they were well disposed to do their best for the public interest, but find at present that the horses fatigued from the harvest, are unfit to be rode by men. The Court having heard this answer, hereby request the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War, if it can be possibly done without prejudice to the public Service, that the expedition be postponed for six or seven days until the harvest be completed as the grain yet in the field is already injured. DONE, Wildwyck, this 30th August, 1663, (was subscribed) ROELOF SWARTWOUT. (Lower Stood) By Order of the Sheriff, Commissaries and Superior officers of the Burghery in Wildwyck (signed) MATTHEUS CAPITO, Secretary.
" Nothing else occurred to-day.
31st ditto. It rained somewhat all this clay, therefore the expedition must rest for the present; sent an escort to the river side and victualled the people at the Redoubt and Sloop. Asked the Sheriff and Commissaries, verbally, whether they could not get some horses to accompany us in the attack so that we may be able to place the wounded on them if we happen to have any. After great trouble they obtained six horses from a few, but spiteful and insulting words from many. One said, Let those furnish horses who commenced the war. Another said, I'll give 'em the Devil if they want any thing they will have to take it by force. The third said, I must first have my horse valued and have security for it; and so forth with much other foul and unbecoming language, not to be repeated.
1st September. Thomas the Irishman and Claesje Hoorn arrived with their yachts at the hill from the Manhatans; sent an escort. to the river side; intended, to set forth to day but the arrival of the yachts and the escort to the river side prevented this, and the weather was so lowering and threatened rain so much that we concluded to start next night towards the break of day; but as it rained the whole night we could not set out. Nothing else occurred to day. A party was out in the field with the farmers, but nothing happened.
2d ditto. Sunday. The weather continued lowering, and heavy rain fell. In the afternoon very heavy rain fell again so that we could not stir out. Nothing occurred during the entire day.
3d ditto. About one o'clock in the afternoon we started from fort Wildwyck, having of my company two and twenty men; of Lieutenant Stilwil's company, four and twenty men, and seven freemen, with two of the Honble Company's Negroes. We took as guide the young Wappinger Indian, and Christoffel Davids as Indian interpreter, and promised the Indian his freedom with a cloth coat, on condition that he brought us truly to the Esopus Indians. We got eight horses with very great difficulty from the farmers, as they were so very unwilling and could not be brought to give us any horses, except Thomas Chambers, who without any solicitation, presented me with two for the expedition. Several of the others, who would not give any, used much offensive language to the Sheriff and to the company's officers, saying “They will have horses; they may see if they can get them." Marched that afternoon about three miles from our fort to the creek which runs past the Redoubt; lay there that night, during which we had great rain.
4th ditto. Found such high water and swift current in the Kill that it was impossible to ford it; sent six men immediately on horseback to our fort Wildwyck to fetch rope and axes to make a raft or some other convenience to cross the creek; they returned to us about ten o'clock; brought three axes and rope. Passed the rope over the stream in order to hold fast to it so that the people may not be swept far down the creek. Crossed over with all the men about two o'clock in the afternoon and marched about four miles further on, where we bivouacked during the night. Considerable rain fell this afternoon.
5th ditto. Set out again at day break, and about noon came to their first maize field where we discovered two Squaws and a Dutch woman; who had come that morning from their new fort to get corn. But as the creek lay between us and the corn-field, though we would fain have the women it was impossible to ford the stream without being seen and then discovered. We therefore, adopted the resolution to avoid the cornfield and the road, and turned in through the woods so as not to be seen. Arrived about two o'clock in the afternoon within sight of their fort, which we discovered situate on a lofty plain. Divided our force in two—Lieutenant Couwenhoven and I led the right wing, and Lieutenant Stilwil and Ensign Niessen the left wing. Proceeded in this disposition along the hill so as not to be seen and in order to come right under the fort; but as it was somewhat level on the left side of the fort and the soldiers were seen by a Squaw, who was piling wood there and who sent forth a terrible scream which was heard by the Indians who were standing and working near the fort, we instantly fell upon them. The Indians rushed forthwith through the fort towards their houses, which stood about a stone's throw from the fort, in order to secure their arms, and thus hastily picked up a few guns and bows and arrows, but we were so hot at their heels that they were forced to leave many of them behind. We kept up a sharp fire on them and pursued them so closely that they leaped into the creek which ran in front of the lower part of their maize land. On reaching the opposite side of the Kill, they courageously returned our fire, which we sent back, so that we were obliged to send a party across to dislodge them. In this attack, the Indians lost their Chief, named Papequanaehen, fourteen other warriors, four women and three children, whom we saw lying both on this and on the other side of the creek but probably many more were wounded, when rushing from the fort to the houses, when we did give them a brave charge. On our side three were killed and six wounded and we have recovered three and twenty Christian prisoners out of their hands. We have also taken thirteen of them prisoners, both men and women, besides an old man who accompanied us about half an hour but would not go farther. We took him aside and gave him his last meal. A Captive Indian Child died on the way, so that there remained eleven of them still our prisoners. The enemy being conquered, we reviewed our men; found we had one wounded more than we had horses. Convened the Council of War; submitted to them what was now best for us to do relative to cutting down the maize. The Council of war decided that we could indeed cut it down, but were any more of our men wounded, how could they be, removed having already one more than we had horses, and this one must be borne, with great trouble; on a litter by two. Resolved to let the maize stand for the present; plundered the houses wherein was considerable booty, such as bear skins, deer skins, notassen, blankets, elk hides, besides several other smaller articles many of which we were obliged to leave behind that we could not bring along with us, for we could well fill a sloop. We destroyed as much as we could; broke the kettles into pieces; got also twenty four or five guns, more than the half of which we smashed and threw the barrels here and there in the stream, hacking and breaking in pieces as many as we could. Found, also, several horns and bags of powder, in all about twenty pounds; got also thirty one belts and some strings of wampum; took the best of the booty along and resolved to set off. Placed the wounded on the horses and had one carried in a blanket on poles by two soldiers in turns. Set out thus in good order on our return and marched that day full two miles from the fort. The fort was a perfect square with one row of palisades set all round being about fifteen feet above, and three feet under ground. They had already completed two angles of stout palisades, all of them almost as thick as a man's body, having two rows of portholes, one above the other; and they were busy at the third angle. These angles were constructed so solid and strong as not to be excelled by Christians. The fort was not so large as the one we had already burnt. The Christian prisoners informed us that they were removed every night into the woods, each night to a different place, through fear of the Dutch, and brought back in the morning; but on the day before we attacked them, a Mohawk visited them, who slept with them during the night. When they would convey the Christian Captives again into the woods, the Mohawk said to the Esopus Indians—What! do you carry the Christian prisoners every night into the woods? To which they answered—yes. Whereupon the Mohawk said, Let them remain at liberty here for you live so far in the woods that the Dutch will not come hither, for they cannot come so far without being discovered before they reach you. Wherefore they kept the prisoners by them that night. The Mohawk departed in the morning for the Manessings and left a new blanket and two pieces of cloth which fell to us also as booty; and we came just that day and fell on them so that a portion of them is entirely annihilated. Wherefore praise and thanks he given to God Almighty. The course lies about South South West to the Indians new fort which is distant about 12 miles. [This line leads to about Bloominburg, in the town of Mamakating Sullivan Co. in the vicinity of which village it is presumed the above battle was fought]. The way is somewhat stoney and hilly, but the road for the greater part is good. After leaving their fort we marched that day two miles where we passed the night. Perceived the Indians on the road.
6th ditto. (September 1663) Early in the morning we started anew; were obliged to cross a rapid, stoney creek, and came this day just beyond the Esopus Kill, which runs by the Redoubt, where we remained this night, and there died the Indian child, which we threw into the creek. Saw scarcely any Indians that day on the road.
7th ditto. Started again and arrived about noon at Wildwyck; did not remark any thing by the way.
8th An escort attended the reapers in the field; returned in the evening without having seen any thing. Christoffels Davids departed.
9th ditto. Sunday. Lieutenant Stilwil and Lieutenant Couwenhoven left for the Manhatans with the sloop; sent with them seven wounded and some sick, together with seventeen of Lieutenant Stilwil's men and twelve of my company; had them escorted to the river side. Nothing else occurred to­day.
10th ditto. Two detachments were out with the reapers and those driving the team. Nothing occurred. They returned about three o'clock in the afternoon; as it commenced raining hard and they saw nothing.
11th ditto. Nothing new; it rained the entire day.
12th ditto. Two yachts arrived at the Redoubt from Fort Orange; had Reyntje Pietersen and Hans Carolussen escorted up; detached a party in Ambush and one in the field with those pulling Hemp, but nothing happened.
13th ditto. Nothing occurred as it rained the whole day.
14th ditto. Sent an escort to the Redoubt by the river side. Nothing else transpired, as it rained again nearly the entire day.
15th ditto. Maet Seeu arrived at the Redoubt with his boat and eight soldiers and some letters from the Heeren Councillors, dated 13th September. Had him conducted up to the village of Wildwyck. An ordinance is enacted by the Council of War; it reads as follows:
" ORDINANCE made and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of War Commanding the Military troops at Wildwyck in the Esopus. “Whereas it is found by daily experience that several of the military do, without permission of the Serjeant or Corporal, leave their posts or stations either to work with the farmers or on some other pretence, Wherefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of War being desirous to provide therefor, have ordered and directed, as they do hereby order and direct—
" That no one shall presume to quit his post or station without permission of the Segeant or
Corporal in command, under the penalty of twenty stivers for the first offence, 40 stivers for the second, and arbitrary punishment for the third.
“ No person shall presume to take or steal another's gun, powder or lead in any manner whatsoever, on pain of corporal punishment, according to the gravity of the case.
" Neither shall any person, be he who he may, commence or begin any quarrel on guard, much
less come drunk or to drink there, under a penalty of twenty stivers for each offence.
“Every one shall hold himself in readiness with his gun, duly provided with powder and ball, to appear immediately, or on the first command of the superior or inferior officer, wherever lie may be required, then to await further orders, and whoever acts contrary or disobeys herein shall be arbitrarily punished according to his deserts, pursuant to the sentence of the Court Martial.
“No one shall go from one guard or post to another without taking with him his proper hand and side arms, so that he may be immediately prepared to defend himself in case of alarm, under a penalty of twenty stivers for each offence, and as often as he shall be found disobeying herein.
THUS DONE by the Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War, in Wildwyck, this 15 September 1663.
Nothing else occurred, inasmuch as it was again rainy weather.
16th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occurred and no detachment was sent out.
17th ditto. Maet Seeu left again with his boat; took with him two sick, Peter Andriessen and Jan Coppenou and two horses for Monsieur Verlet and sundry empty barrels for the Honble Company; had him escorted to the Redoubt by 32 men. Thomas the Irishman arrived to day, at the Redoubt and a small straw cabin in which a soldier resided was burnt, but nothing can be ascertained as to how the fire originated. Meanwhile the Soldier lost all his property. Nothing else occurred this day.
18th ditto. Presented the following request to the Magistrates of this village of Wildwyck :—
“Whereas the Heer Director General and the Heeren Councillors have written to us here that it is their intention to send hither, by the first opportunity, additional Soldiers and a party of Marseping Savages, [These were Queens Co. Indians. Thompson calls them Marsepeagues, and says their principal settlement was at Fort Neck] to seek out and subdue as much as possible the Esopus Indians, our enemy, the Captain Lieutenant and Council of War, therefore, request the Sheriff and Commissaries of this village of Wildwyck to be pleased to allot two or three houses in this village to lodge, provisionally, the aforesaid force whenever it shall arrive. This doing, our friendship shall follow. DONE, Wildwyck, 18th Septr 1663." Answer of the Court as follows:— “The W. Court having looked around at the request of the Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War for proper lodgings for the coming forces, have induced Pieter Jacobsen to give his mill for 40 to 50 Soldiers, and the W. Court will do its best to find out quarters for the Savages DONE, Wildwyck, this 18th September 1663. (was subscribed) ROELOF SWARTWOUT. (Lower stood) By order of the W. Court in Wildwyck aforesaid. MATTHEUS CAPITO, Secretary. Two detachments were out, to day, with the reapers in the field and at the Great Plot, and 20 men in ambush. Returned in the evening; saw nothing.
19th ditto. Thomas the Irishman sailed for the Manhatans; had him escorted. Two detachments were out in the field with the reapers, but saw nothing.
20th ditto. Two detachments were out at the Great Plot by Tjerck's to cut oats and to plough; they returned in the evening having seen nothing.
21st ditto. Two detachments went out again; one with the ploughers, the other with those drawing home the oats, but they did not see any thing.
22d ditto. Another detachment was out in the field with the ploughmen; saw nothing. Sent a party about midnight along the Kill where some maize lay; distant South from Wildwyck about 2 hours' march; but on arriving there found only a small patch of maize, as it had all been plucked by some straggling Indians or bears. Our people took away the remainder, but 'twas of little value. The Indian prisoners whom we hold had first informed us, to day, that a small spot of corn had been planted there principally to supply food to stragglers who went to and fro to injure the Christians. Should they come again they'll not find any food.
23d ditto. (September 1663) Sunday. Nothing particular. Towards evening sent a convoy to the river side to bring up bread for the garrison. About eleven o'clock that night sent out a party to the Sager's little kill in an easterly1 direction from our village of Wildwyck about three miles from our fort, having been informed that there was some maize there, to see if they could not remove it thence, either by land or water.
24th ditto. Monday. The party that was sent out in the night returned home about two o'clock in the afternoon; they were at Sager's Killetie, on the Indians' maize plantation, but saw no Indians nor any­thing to indicate that they had been there. for a long time, for the maize had not been hoed, (aangehoocht) and could not come to its full growth, but had been much injured by the wild beasts ; neither will any of it reach perfection, except one plantation which was good, having been hoed by the Indians. 'Twas, however, much injured by the wild beasts; each of our people brought a load of it home on his back, and left some more standing, which we will when convenient bring hither. They also say that it is beautiful maize land, suitable for a number of bouweries and for the immediate reception of the plough. Had an escort in the field to bring in the oats and buckwheat, and sent one to the Redoubt, as Domine Blom had arrived in the Spaniard's yacht, and some supplies had also been sent from the Manhatans by the Heeren Councillors for the troops in the Esopus. Otherwise, nothing particular occurred to-day.
25th ditto. Had an escort in the field with the ploughmen, and sent one to the river side to fetch up supplies or provisions. A soldier named Jurien Jansen fell out of a canoe at the Redoubt and was drowned; he was reaching for a squirrel and the canoe thus upset and he was drowned. Nothing else occurred to-day except sending some horses and wagons to fort Orange which were required by the owners.
26th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven arrived at the Redoubt and Wildwyck with some Marseping Savages. Sent a detachment to the water side to fetch up some supplies. Inasmuch as Lieutenant Couwenhoven has arrived at Wildwyck, and the gunner's wife has again brought a quantity of strong drink along, which she retails as well to Indians as to Christians, without making any exception as to habitual drunkards, and furnishes them with so much that they cannot distinguish even the door of the house, and then, coming out, fight with and strike the Indians. Therefore, desirous to prevent all mischiefs which might arise from strong drink, the rather as an expedition is again about to set out, according to letters from the Supreme Council, and in order to have sober and proper men to march at the first command of the officers, the Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War have, for the present, sent an order to the Sheriff of this Village, which reads as follows— “The Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War having orders from the Supreme government to get up another expedition, and the entire military, and the Natives our friends, the Marseping Indians, being here also holding themselves in readiness to set out at the first command of the officers. The Capt Lieutenant and valiant Council of War do therefore hereby authorize and order Sheriff Swartwout of this village to notify and forbid the tappers or retailers of strong drink who follow the profession of selling liquor in this village, that they do not under present circumstances sell strong drink to any one, be he Christian or Indian, under the forfeiture of the intoxicating liquor that may be found in his house. Done, Wildwyck, 26th September, 1663." Meanwhile, nothing else occurred to-day.
27th ditto. (September 1663) An escort was in the field with the ploughmen and one to the river side to fetch up provisions. Nothing else happened.
28th ditto. The Council of War engaged Derrick Smith to remain at the Redoubt with his yacht until. we return with the troops from the expedition, in order to carry back the forces and Marseping Indians, and agreed with said Smith that he shall have in Seawan eight guilders light money per day. A detachment was out in the field with the ploughmen; 10 to 13 of our Indians were out in the bush shooting. They returned in the evening; say that they have discovered signs of where the Indians are gone to. Nothing else occurred to day.
29th ditto. Convened the Council of war and resolved and concluded to set out on another expedition against the Esopus Indians next Monday being the 1st of October, and each man shall be furnished with three pounds of biscuit, one pound of powder and one pound of ball for the expedition. An order is also given to the Sheriff and Commissaries as follows—"Whereas by orders from the Director General and Council of New Netherland an expedition is about to set out against the Esopus Indians, our enemies and sixteen, horses are required to accompany and to be used by said expedition, the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant [Council of War,] therefore request the Sheriff and Commissaries of this Village of Wildwyck to supply said horses from the inhabitants by the first of October proximo, being next Monday. Done, Wildwyck the 29th September 1663." A detachment was in the field with the ploughmen, and one to the river side; Saw nothing.
30th September, Sunday afternoon, caused powder and ball to be distributed to the soldiers and Indians; one pound powder, one pound lead each, with three pounds biscuit for this expedition. Nothing else happened to day.
1st October being Monday, we marched from Wildwyck with these following troops; of the Military 102 men; of the Marseping Indians 16 men; of the freemen 6; with 14 horses obtained from the farmers of Wildwyck for the use of the expedition so as to be able to accommodate the wounded, should we have any. Marched with these troops about 9 hours and arrived in the evening about 7 miles from Wildwyck where we passed the night. Experienced scarcely any trouble through the day; had considerable rain in the night.
2nd ditto. Started again with our troops and about two o'clock in the afternoon came to the fort of the Esopus Indians where we had attacked them on the 5th September and there found five large pits into which they had cast their dead. The wolves had rooted up and devoured some of them. Lower down on the Kill were four other pits full of dead Indians and we found, further on, three Indians with a Squaw and a Child that lay unburied and almost wholly devoured by the ravens and the wolves. Sent out, immediately a party of Dutch men and Indians four miles beyond the fort in a South westerly direction where our guide presumed some Esopus Indians would be, but on coming there discovered nothing but some wigwams which had. been a long time abandoned by the Indians. Meanwhile I had been over the Kill with a party of men and pulled off the corn and threw it into the Kill. The troops returned in the evening without having seen any Indians. About two miles from the fort perceived the trail of two Indians who had gone across the mountain; supposed to be strange Indians; The trail was a day old.
3d ditto. Early in the morning despatched a party of soldiers and Indians into the woods to see if they could not find any Indians; sent a detachment again over the Kill to pull up the maize and throw it into the Kill. In the afternoon sent two other detachments into the corn fields to throw the maize into the creek, as the corn which stood about the fort was all thrown into the Kill by the evening. After sundown our party returned, without having captured or discovered any thing.
4th ditto. We pulled up the Indian fort and threw the palisades, one on the other, in sundry heaps and set them on fire, together with the wigwams which stood around the fort, and thus the fort and houses were destroyed and burnt. About 10 o'clock we marched thence down along the creek where lay divers maize plantations, which we also destroyed and cast the corn into the creek. Several large Wigwams stood also there which we burnt. Now, having destroyed every thing, we marched that day, on our return, about four miles further, where we remained with the troops that night by a small creek, the rain falling the entire time. Two Hackinsack Indians who had come up with the Marsepings staid behind at the fort. They told the Chief that they should return home from thence, as they could reach Hackinsack as soon as Esopus; but the Chief did not mention it to us until we had marched back some two miles. These two Indians had, each, a gun from the Esopus, which they took away with them.
5th ditto. (October 1663) Still raining incessantly; but we again resumed our homeward march, to Wildwyck. This night one of the farmers' horses strayed away; searched for it this morning every where, but could not find it. Meanwhile continued our march, and arrived in the evening at Wildwyck. Saw nothing on the road. The course from Wildwyck to the Indians' burnt fort lies mostly South Southwest across several large creeks; some of which are breast-high, some not so deep. The way is very bad and hilly; in some places is very fine land.
6th ditto. Had two escorts to the river side; nothing else occurred to-day.
7th ditto. Sunday. At break of day sent out. forty soldiers with twenty Indians to the Sagers Killetje, lying easterly (Oostwaerts) from Wildwyck, where there were two fields planted with maize, for the purpose of destroying this and throwing it into the creek; they returned in the evening each with a load of maize having thrown the remainder into the creek. About noon, to day, a girl was brought up from the Redoubt who, the day before had arrived on the opposite bank there and was immediately conveyed across [the stream]. When the girl came to Wildwyck she was forthwith asked, where she came from? Said, she had escaped from an Indian who had taken her prisoner, and who resided in the mountain on the other side of the creek about three miles from Wildwyck where he had a hut and a small patch of corn which he had pulled and had been there about three weeks to remove the corn. The Council of War forthwith resolved to send thither forty men to try and catch him, whereupon Ensign Niessen with 36 soldiers and Lieutenant Couwenhoven with 5 Indians were ordered out. They marched from Wildwyck about noon and crossed over at the Redoubt. They reached the hut about sunset which, having completely surrounded, they surprized, but found it empty. The Indian had abandoned it before their arrival. They found a lot of corn near the put, and another lot at the kill, part of which they burned and brought a part here. Remained in the hut during the night and watched there.
8th ditto. About ten o'clock the troops returned to Wildwyck. Convened the Council of War and resolved and concluded to send off Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the Marseping Indians and about forty of our soldiers to the Manhatans on the morrow being the ninth of October. The Council of War also resolved to send down all the Indian prisoners likewise to the Manhatans being eleven Esopus Indians, big and little and one Wappinger, making twelve in all, as there is, no probability of their being redeemed here, none of the Esopus Indians coming here to speak to or enquire after them. Nothing else occurred to day.
9th ditto. Lieutenant Couwenhoven departed in Dirick Smith's yacht, took with him all the Marseping Indians and 40 of the military. Sent no escort to the river side with them. Nothing else happened. The horse which we left on the expedition returned back to Wildwyck to day.
10th ditto. A detachment was out in the field with the ploughmen—they returned about noon as it began to rain hard. Louis, the Waloon, went to day to fetch his oxen which had gone back of Juriaen Westphaelen’s land. As he was about to drive home the oxen, three Indians, who lay in the bush and intended to seize him, leaped forth. When one of these shot at him with an arrow but only slightly wounded him, Louis, having a piece of a palisade in his hand, struck the Indian on the breast with it so that he staggered back, and Louis escaped through the kill, and came thence and brought the news into the fort, whereupon two detachments were instantly despatched to attack them, but they had taken to flight and retreated into the woods. And although a party searched for them an hour they could not discover them; they thereupon returned to Wildwyck. No other harm was done by the three Indians. This evening the Company's yacht arrived at the Redoubt. Nothing else occurred to day.
11th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were in the field with the ploughmen and one in ambush; returned in the evening without seeing any thing.
12th ditto. Two parties were again in the field with the ploughmen. About noon, to day, Reyntje Pieters came from fort Orange with his yacht in which also arrived Thomas Chambers and Evert Pels [an ancestor of ours]. Brought news that Peter the Fleming, residing on the East shore opposite Bethlehem had been warned by a Mohawk to depart if he wish not to be killed, for he said that all the Indians on the East side of fort Orange river had assembled and were to come in five days to attack fort Orange. This Indian had given him this warning, he being his great Nytap1 and the Mahicanders and the Cattskill Indians had all abandoned their maize plantations; yea, had offered to sell divers maize plantations to the Dutch for a piece of cloth. Peter the Fleming brought this news to Fort Orange on Monday, being the 7th of October, the day before he left fort Orange with the yacht. Now, the result hereof time will determine. I also received a letter from Cattskill, from Elbert Herbertsen which I enclose. to your Honors. It is dated 26th September. In like manner Capt Thomas Chambers informs me that many of the Dutch of Fort Orange are removing in canoes the corn from the Indians' plantations which had been abandoned by the Indians. This Mohawk had also said that five Indian Nations had assembled together; namely the Mahicanders, the Catskills, the Wappingers, those of Esopus besides another tribe of Indians that dwell half way between Fort Orange and Hartford. Now, time will tell what there is herein. He said their place of meeting was on the east side of the fort Orange river, about three miles inland from Claverack, and that they were about five hundred strong. Sent two escorts to the river side to fetch up the Honble Company's goods. They returned to Wildwyck together with the detachments that had been out in the field with the ploughmen. Saw nothing.
13 ditto. The Company's yacht returned to the Manhatans; the same day two yachts also arrived from the Manhatans and sailed for fort Orange, after having touched at the Redoubt. A detachment was out in the field with the plough men and one in ambush, and I sent an escort to the river side. The beer sent up by the Heer General was likewise distributed, to day, to the soldiers. Nothing else occurred.
14th ditto; Sunday—nothing to note except that I sent a convoy in the evening to the river side to drive up some cattle which had arrived from Fort Orange.
15 ditto. Communicated another Order to the W. Court relative to the non repairs of the fortress of Wildwyck. It is verbally as follows:
“WHEREAS an Acte dated 23d August has been communicated to the Schout &, Commissaries of this Village Wildwyck respecting the repair of this fortress of Wildwyck and nothing resulted therefrom to this date, the Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War do, therefore, again recommend and order the W. Court of this Village of Wildwyck to cause the said fortress to be properly secured by the Commonalty of this Village against all unexpected attacks as necessity requires it, and the fort lies open at divers points as the W. Court can itself see in what state it at present is: Wherefore the W. Court of this Village of Wildwyck is again condescendingly requested to be pleased to give orders to repair the above mentioned fort in a proper manner, and in default thereof the Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War do hereby protest, should any attack be made by our enemies on this fortress, that they hold themselves guiltless thereof, this fortress being at present incapable of defence—and there appears no disposition as yet to repair it—although the said Capt. Lieutenant and Council of War will perform their duty with the force entrusted to them by the Supreme Government and shall constantly hold themselves in readiness, both in garrison and in the field, to maintain this place for the public interest, trusting that the W. Court will please to give order herein to their Commonalty for the proper reparation thereof, which awaiting &c. Done, Wildwyck 15th 8ber 1663.”
Two convoys were out in the field with the ploughmen and one in ambush; saw nothing during the day. Hans the Norman arrived at the Redoubt with his yacht from fort Orange; reports that full seven thousand Indians had assembled at Claverack, on the east side, about three miles inland, but he knows not with what intent. Now what this can mean, whether it be true or not, we cannot determine, but in my opinion it looks somewhat like fiction. Meanwhile, nothing else occurred.
16th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were again in the field with the ploughmen, and an escort was also down to the river side. They returned and nothing else happened.
17th ditto. Two detachments were again abroad with the ploughmen, and likewise one in ambush and had another as an escort to the river side. Nothing occurred to-day. An Ordinance was, this day, drawn up by the Council of War for the Soldiers at the Redoubt and posted there. It reads as follows
“ORDINANCE made by the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War commanding the military troops at Wildwyck, and dependancies, for the military stationed at present at the Redoubt.
"WHEREAS by daily experience we learn that some remove from the Redoubt to the village of Wildwyck without the consent or order of the Capt. Lieutenant or other officers, the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War, therefore, wishing to prevent all irregularities and infractions of military discipline herein order and direct the officer and the military under his command stationed at the Redoubt, not to remove himself, from the Redoubt, much less to send any of his command hither to the Village of Wildwyck without proper consent of the Capt. Lieutenant or other Com­mander who represents him for the time, nor without being accompanied by a, proper escort on pain of being arbitrarily punished by Court Martial. THUS done by the Capt. Lieutenant and Valiant Council of war in the fortress Wildwyck the 17th 8ber, 1663."
18th ditto. Received an answer from the Court of this village to the Order sent to them the 15th October, respecting the non-repair of the fortress Wildwyck. It reads as follows:
“The W. Court having read the order dated the 15th 8ber sent hither by the Capt Lieutenant to the W: Court, which is therein requested to repair and renew the palisades of this Village of Wildwyck, so that the same may be in a state of defence, the W. Court finds that necessity requires that. this village be properly secured and protected by setting up of good palisades; the W. Court, therefore, orders and directs that each farmer shall duely set up and repair the old, with new, palisades in front of his lot; and the others, being inhabitants or Burghers occupying 34 lots in this village, shall be obliged properly to repair and set up new palisades in place of the old, from the Water gate along the curtains unto the lot of Arent Pietersen Tack, the new palisades being at least two feet in circumference, but the thicker the better, and 13 feet in length, according to the circumstances of the case to be determined by the W. Court. This renewal and setting up shall commence next Monday, being the 22d October. Wherefore every inhabitant is hereby notified to appear at 7 o'clock on the day aforesaid, at the gate near Hendrick Jochemsen's, there, as his name is called, to proceed to work aforesaid, and to continue at it until the same shall be completed, on pain, in case of neglect or unwillingness, of paying for the first offence three guilders; for the second offence double as much, and so on adding three guilders. THUS DONE at the Court of the Sheriff and Commissaries of this village Wildwyck, this 16th October, 1663, (Under written) By order of the Sheriff and Commissaries aforesaid. (Signed) MATTHEUS CAPITO, Secretary.
Two detachments were out in the field to-day with the ploughmen, and one at the Redoubt by the river side. Nothing else was done to-day.
19th ditto. (October 1663) Two detachments were out again with the ploughmen, and one to the river side; a party was, also, in ambush to make some discovery; but did not see any thing.
20th ditto. Three detachments were out in the field again with the ploughmen, and one in ambush, but did not remark any thing. An escort was also down to the river side at the Redoubt.
21st ditto. Sunday; nothing occurred.
22d ditto. Three detachments were again out with the ploughmen, and one in ambush as scouting. An escort was likewise sent down to the river side; they did not see any thing.
23d ditto. Three detachments were again out with the ploughmen, but saw nothing.
24th ditto. Two parties were again out in the field with the ploughmen, and I was until evening with a party in ambush, but did not perceive any thing.
25th ditto. Two escorts were again in the field with the ploughmen, and one to the river side. Nothing happened.
26th ditto. An escort was in the woods with those cutting palisades, and another party was in ambush, but saw nothing.
27th ditto. An escort was in the field with the ploughmen, and one in ambush, and another to the river side. Nothing else was done.
28th ditto. Sunday. Nothing occurred.
29th ditto. Two parties were out; one with the wood cutters, the other in ambush—but saw nothing.
30th ditto. A detachment was in the woods with those cutting palisades, and a party to the river side, and also a troop in the woods scouting; did not see any thing.
31st ditto. Gerrit Abel was tried before the Valiant Court Martial for his offence committed on the 29TH October and is sentenced by the Court as follows:—
" WHEREAS Gerret Abel being in command at the Redoubt, hath in contravention to the ordinance dated 17th 8ber enacted by the Valiant Council of War and posted at the Redoubt, proceeded to the village of Wildwyck on last Monday the 29th October, without leave, escort or any necessary business, but merely to get drunk, as actually happened, which being notified to the Capt Lieutenant, he caused him to be placed under arrest, and to be tried this day, 31st October, before the Valiant Court Martial and prosecuted for this his committed offence, for which the Capt Lieutenant demands the Valiant Council of War duly to punish the accused Gerret Abel.
“The accused gave as an excuse for his coming here to Wildwyck that he wanted to get a skepel of wheat ground, and as it could not be immediately ground for him, he was to a friend's with whom he drank half a pint. And the accused having heard the charge aforesaid, acknowledges to have transgressed the ordinance above mentioned, and supplicates herein, not justice, but mercy.
“The Valiant Council of War having maturely considered this matter; that a soldier and more especially one who is in command over others hath deserved punishment for his committed offence according to the complaint and confession; seeing that the prisoner's excuse hath no foundation, sentence the accused Gerret Abel, to be dismissed from his post of Cadet (Adelborst) and to be reduced to the ranks (Schildergastendienst te doen) at 8fl. per month, and to remain at the Redoubt until further orders, he Gerret Abel being unfit to perform the duty of Cadet. Done at Wildwyck the 31st October 1663. (Subscribed) MARTEN CREGIER, CHRISTIAEN NIESSEN, THOMAS CHAMBERS, EVERT WILLEM MUNNICK, JAN PEERSEN, JONAS RANTSON."
Same day, a detachment was out in the woods with the wood cutters and one in ambush scouting, but they did not see any thing.
November the 1st. (1663) A party was in ambush, and a detachment with the wood cutters; saw nothing.
2nd ditto. A detachment was out with the wood cutters and another in ambush to scout.
3d ditto. A detachment was down at the river side to carry rations to the people at the Redoubt, and another party was at the Great Plot, but did not notice any thing.
4th ditto. Sunday. Nothing done.
5th ditto. An escort was down to the river side to bring up some supplies and people that had arrived from the Manhatans in Lucassen's yacht, they being freemen belonging to Wildwyck. A party was also out in the bush with the wood cutters. Nothing else happened.
6th ditto. Ordered two soldiers to accompany Arent Moesman to Beeren island near fort Orange.
An escort was also to the river side and being near the Redoubt lay there in ambush until the evening, but saw nothing. Another party 25 in number was at the Great Plot; they returned in the evening, without having remarked any thing.
7th ditto; Wednesday. This being a day of Prayer (Bededag) nothing was done. In the evening Pieter Wolfertseu arrived at the Redoubt with Rut Jacobsen's yacht; brought with him two Christian children which he had in exchange from the Esopus Indians for a Squaw with a big girl; brought back the other Indian prisoners; brought also the Wappinger Sachem whom Couwenhoven had detained in the yacht; says a Christian woman is kept a prisoner by the Wappingers, and that he had detained the Chief in her stead until they should surrender the Christian woman. Nothing else occurred. Sent an escort to the river side to bring up the two captive children. Couwenhoven said that he has concluded a ten days' truce with the Esopus Sachem.
8th ditto. Have been, myself, with an escort to the river side to bring up to Wildwyck the Esopus Indian prisoners & the children with the Wappinger Indian captive, being in all 9 in number. On arriving at the shore, found the Wappinger Chief and also one of his Indians on board Rut Jacobsen's Yacht. Asked Lieutenant Couwenhoven, what were these two Indians for? Said it was the Sachem of the Wappingers with one of his Indians whom he had brought along but not as a prisoner—had come willingly on board as a friend. Asked him, If he would wish to return home and endeavor to let us have the female christian captive? To which he answered, yes; says, he will bring her himself in six or seven days. Whereupon the Council of War decided that he and the Indian with him, should be released, and as they were at present our friends and had renewed peace we promised him if he brought back the Christian woman we should then let his brother go together with another prisoner. Whereunto he said, 'Tis well; gave him a bark canoe & let him go. Nothing else happened to-day as it rained unceasingly.
9th ditto. It still rained considerably. Sent an escort to the river side; Rut Jacobsen sailed with his Yacht for fort Orange. Nothing else happened.
10th ditto (November 1663) A detachment was out with the wood cutters; nothing else occurred.
11th ditto Sunday, nothing was done except sending a party to the river side with bread for the people in the Redoubt. ,
12th ditto. A detachment was out in the bush with the woodcutters. Nothing else transpired.
13th ditto. The Company's Yacht arrived ; brings some provisions for the garrison; also arrived at the Redoubt a Wappinger Sachem with eight Indians, bringing a female Christian Captive whom he had purchased from the Esopus Indians and which he had promised. us on the 8th inst. on board Rut Jacobson’s Yacht. The Council of War resolved that he and his attending Indians should be brought up to Wildwyck; they were accordingly conducted up by Lieutenant Couwenhoven and Captain Thomas Chambers and brought to Wildwyck. Sent for him to the Council of War and asked, what he had to communicate? He answered, I am come to perform my promise which I gave on board the Yacht at the Redoubt, to bring in the Christian Woman whom I bought from the Esopus Squaw, and I bring and present her to you now, because we are both friends. Whereupon we thanked him and said, that we should speak together on the morrow. Lodged them in Capt. Chambers house and had food furnished them. Meanwhile a detachment went down to the river side. Otherwise nothing occurred to-day.
14th ditto. The Council of War met again and resolved to release the Wappinger Indian, and to give him back to the Chief with one of the Esopus captive Squaws, pursuant to our previous promise, made on the eight of November to the Wappinger Chief, on board the Yacht at the Redoubt. Invited the Chief and his Indians into the Council chamber and presented him the Esopus Squaw and a little sucking infant, which they took; presented him also with two pieces of cloth in token of friendship. The Chief then requested that we should live with him in friendship, which should be preserved by him. He gave us, in token thereof; a Bow and arrow and said, I will not make war against the Dutch, but live in peace with them. We promised him likewise; gave each other the hand, and the said chief promised us to do his best to obtain back for us all the prisoners from the Esopus Indians that a mutual exchange should be made; for tomorrow being Thursday, the Esopus Sachem would then come with the prisoners according to the promise he gave Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the provisional truce agreed upon for ten days with him, for he had promised to fetch the Christian prisoners to the Redoubt in the space of ten days, to be then exchanged one for the other. Now, what the result will be, when the ten days are expired, time will tell. So they again departed well satisfied. Gave them an escort to conduct them to the river side, and the Council resolved that the sloop shall remain until the expiration of the time agreed upon between Lieutenant Couwenhoven and the Esopus Sachem on the 5th November, on board the Sloop in the Wappinger Creek, to wit: that the Esopus Chief should bring up all the Christian prisoners to the Redoubt to exchange them then, one for another, whereupon a ten days' truce was mutually agreed to. A soldier named Jurien Helm died to day. An escort was also down to the river side. Nothing else occurred to day.
15th ditto. A vessel arrived from fort Orange with cattle; sent a convoy to the river side. Nothing else happened.
16th ditto. Another detachment was down to the river. A yacht bound for the Manhatans arrived from fort Orange to day. Nothing else occurred.
17th ditto. Arranged every thing in order and departed with some of the Military for the Manhatans leaving in Wildwyck about sixty soldiers under the command of Ensign Christiaen Niessen.*
That part of the Journal between Asterisks, which follows, is by Ensign Niessen. ED.
18th Sunday. (November 1663) After Capt Lieutenant Martin Cregiers departure yesterday, Jan Hendricksen Van Baal came the fourth person up to Wildwyck. He arrived from the Manhatans in Mr. Abraham's1 yacht and reported that two Dutchmen were killed by the Savages between Gemonapa2 and the Maize land. Had them escorted, on their return, to the river side. Nothing else occurred.
19th ditto. Sent another party to the Redoubt and had provisions brought up. Discharged one man at the Redoubt and sent two others thither; also, distributed powder to the men, half a pound to each. Nothing else done.
20th ditto. Sent a. detachment to the woods to draw out timber. This was all that occurred.
21st ditto. Nothing happened.
22d ditto. Sent a detachment to the river side. Otherwise nothing occurred.
23d ditto. The only thing done to day was to send another party to the river side with grain.
24th ditto. The yachts of Reyndert Pietersen and the Spaniard arrived at the Redoubt; sent an escort thither. No other occurrence took place.
25th ditto. Sunday. Nothing happened.
26th ditto. Sent down an escort to the riverside to fetch up the Honble Company's supplies. No other circumstance occurred.
27th ditto. Sent another convoy to the riverside to take down grain. Otherwise nothing happened.
28th ditto. About one o'clock in the afternoon a Wappinger Indian came to Wildwyck with a flag of truce; reports that a Wappinger Sachem lay at the river side near the Redoubt with venison and wished to have a wagon to convey the venison up for sale, which was refused. The said Indian told me that the Sachem had not much to say; added further, that the Hackingsack Indians had represented that four of the Esopus Indians prisoners in our hands, had died. Whereupon the Indian prisoners were brought out to the gate to him, to prove to him that they were still living and well. Sent him down immediately, to his Sachem at the river side, to say to him that we should come to him to morrow.
29th ditto. At day break had notice given that those who were desirous of purchasing venison from the Indians should go along with the escort to the river side. Accompanied the detachment to the shore and conversed with the Sachem in the presence of Capt Thomas Chambers and Sergeant Jan Peersen. He said, he had been to receive the Christian prisoners and should have had them with us before, had he not unfortunately burnt himself in his sleep when lying before the fire; shewed us his buttock with the mark of the burn which was very large; Also said, that six Christian Captives were together at the river side, and gave ten fathom of Sewan to another Indian to look up the seventh Christian who is Albert Heyman's oldest daughter, promising us positively that he should restore all the Christian prisoners to us in the course of three days, provided it did not blow too hard from the North; otherwise, he could not come before the fourth day. We, then, parted after he had, meanwhile, sold his venison. He left immediately in his canoe.
30th. Sent an escort to the river side with grain. Nothing else occurred.
lst December. The only circumstance that happened to day was the sending away the three Indians with a letter to the Honble Heer Director General and Council of New Netherland, to whom the following was written in haste.
“Noble, Respected, Right honorable, Wise, Prudent and most discreet Lords—
“To be brief, we could not omit advising Your Honors that three Indians arrived here yesterday, being come, as they said from the Manhatans, with an open letter, being a pass not to commit any hostility against their people to this date. But we cannot determine what sinister design these Indians may have recourse to under cover of this pass. We maintain that such and other Indians resort here with such passes; to spy out this our place. Meanwhile, we being on our guard, placed sentinels every where before them, to prevent them passing through the village to examine and pry into it, as they are strongly inclined to do. In the meantime we inform your Honours that on the day before yesterday the Wappinger Sachem came with venison to the Redoubt, and we have had a talk with him, and he promised us, among other things, to bring us hither all the Christian prisoners, within three or four days, according to the entries in our daily journal which Your Honors shall receive from us by the first Yacht. DONE, Wildwyck this first December 1663. (Was subscribed) CHRISTIAEN NIESSEN, THOMAS CHAMBERS."
2d ditto. (December 1663) Sunday. Nothing happened, except that on account of the hard frost, I requested the skippers of the vessels to go down to the Redoubt to examine their Yachts which they consented to do. In the afternoon, after the Sermon, sent a party to the shore to take down grain and to put it on board.
3d ditto. The military Council having met, the following resolution was adopted:—
“Ensign Christiaen Niessen proposes to send down, pursuant to despatches from the Honble Director General and Council, the saddles, pistols, holsters &, carbines, the best whereof was left by Capt. Lieutenant Martin Cregier and remains with the Clerk, Mattheus Capito, as appears also by letters from the Capt. Lieutenant aforesaid together with the three metal guns and their accou­trements as they were used in the field, and also one sail.
“The Military Council decided that it was impossible, in view of the approaching winter, to send the articles down at present as here at Wildwyck we have no smith sufficiently expert to repair the arms, and as the Wappingers come almost daily under pretense of exchanging Christians, to spy out this place which already hath suffered massacre enough, and consequently, if the articles in readiness were sent away (which would be publicly seen by other tribes of Indians) two massacres (which God forbid!) may occur through want of all adequate means, save God's Providence.
“2ndly The Ensign aforesaid moves, inasmuch as the setting out of the palisades is found as yet to be for the greater part inadequate and not in accordance with the Capt. Lieutenant's request, and as in many places palisades have been removed from the curtains and not replaced by others, much less attention paid to setting out the same, to the imminent ruin and destruction of this Village of Wildwyck, which God forfend; and demands further that the inhabitants of Wildwyck may be notified by the W. Court to put the fort in a suitable state of defense within the space of three days, and in default or neglect thereof, that he do it with the best means he may at present find at hand, and demand repayment therefor when done, from the W. Court at Wildwyck.
“The Military Council unanimously resolved that for the due execution of said proposal, it be forthwith communicated to the W. Court in Wildwyck, and that they answer the same without delay. (Signed) THOMAS CHAMBERS, HENDRICK JOCHEMS, JAN PEERSEN, EVERT PELS*, JONAS RANTSOU, WALRAN DU MOND, ANTONIE DELAVA."
Also, sent a convoy down in the morning with grain to the river side, which on returning brought up the Wappinger Sachem and his wife, and Splitnose, the Indian last taken by us. Which Sachem brought with him two captive Christian children. stating to us that he could not, pursuant to his previous promise of the 29th November, bring along with him the remainder, being still five Christian captives; because three were at their hunting grounds, and he could not find them, but that another Indian was out looking for them; the two others are in his vicinity, the Squaw who keeps them prisoner will not let them go, because she is very, sick and hath no children, and expects soon to die ; and when he can get Albert Heymans' oldest daughter, who is also at the hunting ground, and whom he hath already purchased and paid for; then he shall bring the remainder of the Christian captives along. For the two Christian children which he hath brought with him, an Indian child is given him, being a little girl, and three pieces of cloth, with which he was content. In the afternoon, Jeronimus Ebbing, Nicolaes Meyer and Frederick the Honble Company's late carpenter, went down unescorted to the Redoubt, with six wagon loads of grain, not being willing to wait for the writings and letters which should be sent by them to the Heeren Director General and Council of N. Netherland; and the Skipper Lucas Andriessen, also, said that he would not wait for the Director General's nor any man's letters but be off, as the wind was fair.*
Capt. Cregier now resumes and concludes the Journal. — Ed.
19th ditto. (December 1663) About three o'clock in the afternoon we started from the Manhatans for the Esopus in the Honble Company's Yacht, with a W. S west wind; arrived that night at Ta[ppan]hook,1 where we cast anchor as it was calm and the ebb was running. against us.
20th ditto. Weighed anchor about eight o'clock and drifted upward with the flood, but about 10 o'clock the wind came up from the North—so that we could make sail and weathered the Highland to day, where we came to anchor anew, as the flood was again gone; saw an Indian paddle across the river in a canoe, but he was a full half mile from us. Nothing else occurred to day.
21st ditto. The flood set in about two hours before day; ran through the Highlands; having got through which, we caught a southern breeze but at day break it became calm again; so ran by the Kamer and arrived this night about 10 o'clock at the mouth of the Esopus Kill. Despatched a man up with a note to Ensign Nyssen to send down some wagons in the morning with an escort to convey up the Honble Company's supplies which were sent for the garrison.
22d About 9 o'clock the escort arrived at the beach with the wagons; entered the kill with the yacht in order to discharge the goods; remained this night in the kill in front of the Redoubt; it froze during the night so hard that the yacht was hemmed in by the ice; arrived at Wildwyck about noon ; sent a convoy to haul stone.
23d ditto. Sunday. No business.
24th ditto. Monday. Assembled the Sheriff and Commissaries of the Village Wildwyck and handed them the letter sent to them by the Honble Director General and Council and discharged Sheriff Swartwout from his office and put [Mattheus Capito] provisionally in his place and presented him to the Court of Wildwyck according to order, whom the said Commissaries congratulated and were well pleased with; they promised honestly to obey what the Heer Director General and Council have been pleased to order. A party was sent to the Great Plot to cut oats which happened to be late in ripening, as an opportunity now presented to cut it and draw it home. The farmers thrashed some of it also, and the vijm [a hundred and four sheafs] produced five skepels of clean oats.
25th ditto. Tuesday. Nothing happened except that Reyntje Pieters came from the river side; he informs us the kill at the Redoubt was still fast.
26th ditto. No occurrence.
27th ditto. A party was out on the Great Plot hauling stone; nothing else occurred.
28th ditto. The Captain and Lieutenant of the Burghery of Wiltwyck requested to have a drum according to the promise given them by the Heer General. By permission of the Military Council a Drum and appurtenances were given to the officers of the burghery of Wildwyck. A party was down to the river side to see if circumstances would admit of the sloop leaving the kill. The party returned and stated that there was no way as yet to go out of the kill.
28th The officers of the Burghery presented a petition; it reads as follows :—We the under signed, Tomas Chambrets Captain and Hendrick Jochems; Lieutenant of the Burghery in Wildwyck, hereby request the Honble Valiant Heer Marten Kregier, Capt Lieutenant to be pleased to furnish a keg of gunpowder with lead in proportion on the village account, to be distributed and used in time of need for the safety of this place, and we await your Honrs favorable answer. Done Wildwyck this 28th Xber 1663. (Signed) TOMAS CHAMBERS, HENDRICK JOCHEMS The answer thereto is as follows:— Petitioners' request is granted. Whenever they require it at the public expense or for their own defence, it shall be furnished them from the Honble Company's Magazine by the officer who will be here. Done, Wiltwyck this 28th December, 1663.
29th ditto. The Military Council resolved to issue an Ordinance against the gunners who usually run about firing on New Year's day or night, which was also published and affixed. It reads as
follows :—
“WHEREAS we find by Experience that some persons presume from year to year to discharge guns on the day of the new incoming year thus wasting powder unprofitably both in the morning and throughout the day and sometimes to the great danger of each other and to their own destruction, both in wounding or destroying their own persons which frequently occurs therefrom and whereas there are here many ricks and barns full of grain and straw, and as great disorder and rashness prevail in many places especially on this day, both in the morning and throughout the day, by firing of guns which is practised and prevails more particularly in this place on the above mentioned New Year's day; Therefore the Captain Lieutenant and valiant Council of War order and forbid all persons whom it may concern that no one shall presume on New Year's day, being the first of January to discharge any gun or other fire arms in front of any houses or any other places where it is not absolutely necessary, unless for some approaching enemies, and that under the penalty of six guilders for each shot fired by the person. Both the Sheriff' and military officers are ordered to pay strict attention hereunto so that thus our order may be duly obeyed. Thus done and enacted by the Captain Lieutenant and Valiant Council of War in Fort Wiltwyck this 29th Xber 1663."
Have been down with a party to the river side to bring away the guns and other munitions of war. Nothing else occurred.
30th . Sunday. Nothing done as it rained almost the entire day and the kill became again open.
31st Left the Esopus again in the Honble Companys Yacht for the Manhatans, the wind Southerly. Weathered the Long Reach where we came to anchor in the night about twelve o'clock.
1664. 1st January. The wind continuing southerly, tacked to-day as far as the entrance of the Highlands where we anchored about 9 o'clock in the evening; the flood being spent weighed anchor and passed through the Highlands where we again cast anchor.
2d Weighed anchor again, and drifted with the ebb as far down as Tappaen.
3d Having weighed anchor again, drifted down anew with the ebb to the end of Manhatans island, where we made sail about 8 o'clock in the morning, the wind being westerly, and arrived about twelve o'clock at the Manhatans.